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51. Basically western civilisation has been fashioned by two essentially opposing philosophies, the idealism of Plato, and the materialism of Epicurus. As far as I'm concerned Epicurus has been totally vindicated my science and history, while Platonic and Aristotelian thought has let down humanity far too many times. Now I won't bother arguing against dualism, or idealism, or bother listing the proofs or arguments for materialism, the likes of Dawkins and Carrier have done more than enough to convince anyone remotely rational. (Its the weakness of idealism’s arguments rather than the strength of materialism’s that convinced me). But I'd like to state that in essence idealism gave us modern religion, materialism gave us science, the two most important factors on humanity. Regardless of whether you think of either as a force for good or evil, I felt the "credit" for their creation needed to be traced back to their source. By assuming idealism was correct we had a dark age and the philosophical justification for xtianity. By assuming materialism (or methodological naturalism) was correct we got all fields of science. I could point out the failure of religion to prove itself is a reflection of idealism shortcomings, and the success of science in everything from astronomy to neuroscience shows there is nothing the materialism need be embarrassed about. Lucretius himself would be welcome in any science lab today. Can the same be said for Plato, or Aristotle? Even Newton with all his religious piety had to admit to their irrelevance. When has idealism ever triumphed? A million victories a day are made for materialism, and it is absurd to regard idealism as anything more than a philosophical curiosity of the past, reduced to mere habit or wishful thinking today.

52. As a philosopher, Al-Farabi was a founder of his own school of early Islamic philosophyknown as "Farabism" or "Alfarabism", though it was later overshadowed by Avicennism. Al-Farabi's school of philosophy "breaks with the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle [... and ...] moves from metaphysics to methodology, a move that anticipates modernity", and "at the level of philosophy, Alfarabi unites theory and practice [... and] in the sphere of the politicalhe liberates practice from theory". His Neoplatonic theology is also more than just metaphysics as rhetoric. In his attempt to think through the nature of a First Cause, Alfarabi discovers the limits of human knowledge".Al-Farabi had great influence on science and philosophy for several centuries, and was widely regarded to be second only to Aristotle in knowledge (alluded to by his title of "the Second Teacher") in his time. His work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for the work of Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Al-Farabi also wrote a commentary on Aristotle's work, and one of his most notable works is Al-Madina al-Fadila where he theorized an ideal state as in Plato's The Republic. Al-Farabi represented religion as a symbolic rendering of truth, and, like Plato, saw it as the duty of the philosopher to provide guidance to the state. Al-Farabi incorporated the Platonic view, drawing a parallel from within the Islamic context, in that he regarded the ideal state to be ruled by the prophet-imam, instead of the philosopher-king envisaged by Plato. Al-Farabi argued that the ideal state was the city-state of Medina when it was governed by the prophet Muhammad as its head of state, as he was in direct communion with Allah whose law was revealed to him.

53. Theocentricism is the belief that God is the central aspect to our existence, as opposed to anthropocentrism or existentialism. In this view, meaning and value of actions done to people or the environment are attributed to God. The tenets of theocentrism, such as humility, respect, moderation, selflessness, and mindfulness, can lend themselves towards a form of environmentalism.[1] In modern theology, theocentricism is often linked with stewardship and environmental ethics or Creation care. It is the belief that human beings should look after the world as guardians and therefore in the way in which God wants them to. Humans should be considerate to all, from animals to plants to humans themselves. It maintains that human beings are merely here for a short time and should be looking after the world for future generations.In Christian theology, theocentricism has sometimes been used to describe theologies that focus on God the Father, as opposed to those which focus on Christ (Christocentric) or the Holy Spirit (Pneumocentric). Theocentrism was a key element of the Christology of Saint Augustine. This view is resisted among some theologians on the grounds that it poses a challenge to trinity. One of these theologians is Carl Baaten who said, "If one can speak of God who is really God apart from Christ, there is indeed no reason for the doctrine of the Trinity. Some kind of Unitarianism will do the job."] Paul F. Knitter, in his defense as a Theocentric Christian, said it depends on how the unity between God and Jesus Christ within trinity is seen. He says that, "we cannot so neatly or exclusively affirm that the Logos/Christ is Jesus. The 'incarnating' activity of the Logos is actualized in but not restricted to Jesus. The God manifested in and as Jesus of Nazareth is the only true God"However, the term can be confusing because theocentrism can also refer to a theology that does not center on any one person of the Trinity, but rather emphases the entire Godhead as a whole. Theologies that center on the Father are sometimes referred to as paterocentric instead.

54. Anthropocentrism has been posited by some environmentalists, in such books as Confessions of an Eco-Warrior by Dave Foreman and Green Rage by Christopher Manes, as the underlying (if unstated) reason why humanity dominates and sees the need to "develop" most of the Earth. Anthropocentrism is believed by some to be the central problematic concept in environmental philosophy, where it is used to draw attention to a systematic bias in traditional Western attitudes to the non-human world.Val Plumwood has argued that anthropocentrism plays an analogous role in green theory to androcentrism in feminist theory and ethnocentrism in anti-racist theory. Plumwood calls human-centeredness "anthropocentrism" to emphasise this parallel.One of the first extended philosophical essays addressing environmental ethics, John Passmore Man's Responsibility for Nature[6] has been criticised by defenders of deep ecology because of its anthropocentrism, often claimed to be constitutive of traditional Western moral thought.Defenders of anthropocentrist views point out that maintenance of a healthy, sustainable environment is necessary for human well-being as opposed for its own sake. The problem with a "shallow" viewpoint is not that it is human-centred but that according to William Grey: "What's wrong with shallow views is not their concern about the well-being of humans, but that they do not really consider enough in what that well-being consists. According to this view, we need to develop an enriched, fortified anthropocentric notion of human interest to replace the dominant short-term, sectional and self-regarding conception."

55. The European Renaissance is divided into Early, High, and Late periods in order to suggest a continuing evolution of culture. Renaissance art demonstrates the evolution in shifting style, form, and subject that coincides with a re-emergence of classical values based on the revival of knowledge from antiquity. In addition, a new humanism developed that focused on concerns of the individual’s experience and intuition, without displacing spiritual concerns. However, nineteenth-century Swiss philosopher Jacob Burckhardt was, perhaps, the first scholar to raise the question of whether a clear divide between the Middle Ages and a so-called Renaissance could really be identified.Becoming the Renaissance.Early Muslim Influence. Byzantine Empire..Rebirth of Classical .In Pursuit of Great Art.

56. What happens when the two greatest artists of all times meet for a showdown?

That showdown actually took place.  The mayor of Florence commissioned the paintings (frescoes) from Michelangelo Buonarroti and Leonardo da Vinci. They were each told to paint a scene from the history of Florence on one of the walls of the Council Room of the Town Hall.Expectation ran high. Of course neither of the artists allowed anyone to see what he was doing while he worked at home. Of the two, Michelangelo must have been the more worried. Leonardo was a generation older and had established his reputation. Michelangelo grew up hearing about Leonardo’s genius—was he jealous? His biographers speak of his dislike for Leonardo.
Leonardo was also an experienced painter and Michelangelo had painted very little so far. He had never painted in fresco. He was a sculptor.What happened? Who won?Officially, neither genius, because Michelangelo never painted his fresco and Leonardo ruined his.However, copies of Michelangelo’s preparatory drawing (cartoon) and of Leonardo’s fresco have survived and give us a fair idea of what each man would have painted.
Here is Michelangelo’s (after an old copy):
This makes Michelangelo look like a jealous ass. Perhaps he was. He was quick to take offense. But the story doesn’t say why Leonardo asked him to explain the text or in what tone. Maybe it was provocative, maybe it sounded like ridicule. It may be the reason Leonardo disliked Michelangelo but Michelangelo’s aversion for Leonardo was already there.

57. The origins of the movement can be found in Medieval astrology and alchemy, such as the writings of Paracelsus, in Renaissance interests in Hermeticism, in 18th century mysticism, such as that of Emanuel Swedenborg, and in beliefs in animal magnetism espoused by Franz Mesmer. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, authors such as Godfrey Higgins and the esotericists Eliphas Levi, Helena Blavatsky, and George Gurdjieff articulated specific histories, cosmologies, and some of the basic philosophical principles that would influence the movement. It experienced a revival as a result of the work of individuals such as Alice Bailey and organizations such as the Theosophical Society. It gained further momentum in the 1960s, taking influence from metaphysics, perennial philosophy, self-help psychology, and the various Indian gurus who visited the West during that decade.[7] In the 1970s, it developed a social and political component.[8]

58.The New Age movement includes elements of older spiritual and religious traditions ranging from Monotheism through Pantheism, Pandeism, Panentheism, and Polytheism combined with Science and Gaia philosophy; particularly Archaeoastronomy, Astronomy, Ecology, Environmentalism, the Gaia hypothesis, UFO religions, Psychology, and Physics.New Age practices and philosophies sometimes draw inspiration from major world religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Chinese folk religion, Christianity, Hinduism, Sufi Islam, Judaism (especially Kabbalah), Sikhism; with strong influences from East Asian religions, Esotericism, Gnosticism, Hermeticism, Idealism, Neopaganism, New Thought, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Universalism, and Wisdom tradition.

59. Deism is the belief in a supreme being, who remains unknowable and untouchable. God is viewed as merely the “first cause” and underlying principle of rationality in the universe. Deists believe in a god of nature -- a noninterventionist creator -- who permits the universe to run itself according to natural laws. Like a “clockmaker god” initiating the cosmic process, the universe moves forward, without needing God’s supervision. Deism believes that precise and unvarying laws define the universe as self-operating and self-explanatory. These laws reveal themselves through “the light of reason and nature.” Reliance on the power of reasoning exchanges faith for human logic. Here are some examples of deist reasoning:

  1.  God is identified through nature and reason, not revelation. Deists who believe in God, or at least a divine principle, follow few if any of the other tenets and practices of Christianity, Judaism, or any religion believing in a personal God. Any deist god is an eternal entity whose power is equal to his/her will.
  2.  Some deists believe in Jesus Christ, while others do not. Most deists give regard to the moral teachings of Jesus.
  3.  The Bible is not accepted as the infallible Word of God. Deists refute evidence of Jesus’ incarnation of God on earth. They deny the credibility of any writings from the Apostles or any “Spirit-inspired” writings.
  4.  Deism has no creed, articles of faith, or holy book. Neither Satan nor hell exists, only symbols of evil which can be overcome by man’s own reasoning.
  5.  Man is qualified to decide what reasonable path to follow regarding morals. Deists refer to themselves as “freethinkers.”
  6.  Deists reject revelations and visions. There is no place for the nonsense of miracles and prophecies in an enlightened deist’s life.
  7.  Deism has no need for ministers, priests, or rabbis. All an individual requires is their own common sense and the ability to contemplate their human condition.

60. Denis Diderot (French: [dəni didʁo]) (5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to theEncyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.Diderot also contributed to literature, notably with Jacques le fataliste et son maître (Jacques the Fatalist and his Master), which emulated Laurence Sterne in challenging conventions regarding novels and their structure and content,[citation needed] while also examining philosophical ideas about free will. Diderot is also known as the author of the dialogue, Le Neveu de Rameau (Rameau's Nephew), upon which many articles and sermons about consumer desire have been based.

61. The Philosophical Method.An outline of the key components of the philosophical method:1) Its objects are concepts.  The philosophical method’s prime role is conceptual analysis, and so the objects it works with are concepts of things, not necessarily things themselves.2) It is rationalist, not empiricist.  Since the philosophical method deals with concepts, it grounds its knowledge in reasoning.  You don’t have to ground or test any philosophical theory empirically or in empirical data; the concept can be tested regardless of any details of any instantiation, or even if it actually is instantiated.3) It is generally abstract.  Again, since concepts exist and can be examined regardless of whether or not they exist, the philosophical method works as well or better with abstract notions than concrete ones.4) It universalizes across all possible worlds.  The concept has to apply in counter-factual situations.  In order to have a good concept, you have to be able to say what it would do if the world was not like this one, even if that means that it couldn’t be instantiated or would have to work a lot differently.  Thus, concepts formed by the philosophical method don’t  just work in this universe, but work in all possible ones.5) Possible world examples are as good or better than real world examples.  Again, the philosophical method has to universalize to all possible worlds.  Because of this, examples of the concept from possible worlds or thought experiments are as good data as real world instantiations are, since those examples need to be handled by any properly defined concept.6) The main drive of specific philosophical tools is to abstract away from real world instantiations as much as possible, to eliminate distractions.  Again, the philosophical method is abstract and has to universalize and generalize across all possible worlds.  The specific details of a specific implementation can detract from this, as you can get caught up in thinking that a specific trait must be a property — and a critical one — of the concept simply because a specific instantiation possesses it.  But, for example, a red colour doesn’t make a house a house even if all the houses you know of are red, and this applies generally to concepts.  Thus, the philosophical method wants to abstract away from specific examples to ensure that it captures the pure concept, and not just the one that we’re most used to seeing.7) The main philosophical tools are thought experiments, modal logic (possible worlds), and analytical reasoning.8 ) The philosophical method does not require lab work; it can be done from the armchair by one person examining their own concepts.  The philosophical method doesn’t in and of itself require anything other than someone sitting down and thinking about what they know, and much progress can be made with that method.9) The philosophical method is validated against the thought experiments, analytical reasoning, and modal logic (possible worlds) of others.  Even though you can do a lot on your own, ultimately everyone has a worldview.  Only by testing your conceptions against other worldviews can you ensure that you’ve covered all the bases and universalized properly.

62. Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is simply the absence of belief that any deities exist. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which in its most general form is the belief that at least one deity exists. The term atheism originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without god(s)", used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshipped by the larger society. With the spread of freethoughtskeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves using the word "atheist" lived in the 18th century. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to social and historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in anysupernatural deity include the lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, rejection of concepts which cannot be falsified, and the argument from nonbelief. Although some atheists have adopted secularphilosophies, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Many atheists hold that atheism is a more parsimonious worldview than theism, and therefore the burden of proof lies not on the atheist to disprove the existence of God, but on the theist to provide a rationale for theism.Atheism is accepted within some religious and spiritual belief systems, including HinduismJainismBuddhismRaelismNeopaganmovements such as Wicca, and nontheistic religionsJainism and some forms of Buddhism do not advocate belief in gods, whereas Hinduism holds atheism to be valid, but some schools view the path of an atheist to be difficult to follow in matters of spirituality. Since conceptions of atheism vary, determining how many atheists exist in the world today is difficult. According to one 2007 estimate, atheists make up about 2.3% of the world's population, while a further 11.9% are nonreligious] According to a 2012 global poll conducted by WIN/GIA, 13% of the participants say they are atheists. According to another study, rates of self-reported atheism are among the highest in Western nations, again to varying degrees: United States (4%), Italy (7%), Spain (11%), Great Britain (17%), Germany (20%), and France (32%).

63. Yoga (Sanskritयोग yoga  pronunciation (help·info)) is the physicalmental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India with a view to attain a state of permanent peace.[1][2] The term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga (to yoke) or yuj samādhau (to concentrate). The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali defines yoga as "the stilling of the changing states of the mind"[1] (Sanskrit: योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध:). Yoga has also been popularly defined as "union with the divine" in other contexts and traditions. Various traditions of yoga are found in HinduismBuddhism and Jainism. In Hinduism, yoga is one of the six āstika ("orthodox") schools of Hindu philosophy. Yoga is also an important part of Vajrayana and Tibetan Buddhist philosophy. Pre–philosophical speculations and diverse ascetic practices of first millennium BCE were systematized into a formal philosophy in early centuries CE by the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. By the turn of the first millennium, hatha yoga emerged from tantra. It along with its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word yoga today. Vajrayana Buddhism, founded by the IndianMahasiddhas,  has a parallel series of asanas and pranayamas, such as caṇḍālī and yantra yoga.Indian monks, beginning with Swami Vivekananda, brought yoga to the West in the late 19th century. In the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world. This form of yoga is often called Hatha yoga. Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma and heart disease. In a national survey, long-term yoga practitioners in the United States reported musculo–skeletal and mental health improvements.

64. A final level of education was philosophical study. The study of philosophy is distinctly Greek, but was undertaken by many Roman students. To study philosophy, a student would have to go to a center of philosophy where philosophers taught, usually abroad in Greece. An understanding of a philosophical school of thought could have done much to add to Cicero's vaunted knowledge of 'that which is great', but could only be pursued by the very wealthiest of Rome's elite. Romans regarded philosophical education as distinctly Greek, and instead focused their efforts on building schools of law and rhetoric.The single most important philosophy in Rome was Stoicism, which originated in Hellenistic Greece. The contents of the philosophy were particularly amenable to the Roman world view, especially since the Stoic insistence on acceptance of all situations, including adverse ones, seemed to reproduce what the Romans considered their crowning achievement: virtus, or "manliness," or "toughness." The centerpiece of Stoic philosophy was the concept of the logos. The universe is ordered by God and this order is the logos , which means "rational order" or "meaning" of the universe.After the death of Zeno of Citium, the Stoic school was headed by Cleanthes and Chrysippus, and its teachings were carried to Rome in 155 by Diogenes of Babylon. There its tenets were made popular by Panaetius, friend of the great general Scipio Aemilianus, and by Posidonius, who was a friend of Pompey (see your textbook if you don't recognize these names); Cicero drew heavily on the works of both.Stoic ideas appear in the greatest work of Roman literature, Vergil's Aeneid , and later the philosophy was adopted by Seneca (c. 1-65 A.D.), Lucan (39-65; poet and associate of the Emperor Nero), Epictetus (c. 55-135; see passages from the Enchiridion ), and the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (born 121, Emperor 161-180; author of the Meditations ). Stoicism is perhaps the most significant philosophical school in the Roman Empire, and much of our contemporary views and popular mythologies about Romans are derived from Stoic principles.This is actually not a philosophical school, but one could generally group a number of Hellenistic schools under this rubric, including the Second Academy (Hellenistic Platonists), the Second Sophistic, the Cynics, the Skeptics, and so on, and, for the most part, the Stoics as well. What is important for our purposes is that all these schools to some degree or another espoused the idea that human beings cannot arrive at certain truth about anything (not all denied certainty was impossible, only that human beings could never be certain).Basically, life became this great guessing game: the lot of humanity is to be cast into a twilight world in which all that we know and think is either false or occupies some middle position between the false and the true (which was called the "probable," or "readily believable,"). This comes to dominate thought in late antiquity; the first philosophical attacks Christianity levels against the thought of antiquity are refutations of skeptical principles. Of all the philosophies of antiquity, this is perhaps the most familiar to you: the skeptic principle of doubting everything became, in the modern era, the fundamental basis of the scientific method.Logos is a linguistic term; it refers particularly to the meanings of words. The meaning of an individual word all by itself is semeion ; the meaning of an individual word in the context of a sentence is logos . For the Stoic, the meaning (logos ) of each individual life, action, and situation is determined by its place in a larger whole, which is, of course, the whole course of history. In this view, history becomes a kind of speech by God.It is progressive, it is teleological, it is meaningful (but only when it's all done: a sentence has no meaning until it's completed). Each and every event, physical and historical, has a place within this larger rational order or meaning. Since the order is rational and meaningful, that means nothing happens which is not part of some larger reason or good (Christianity will adopt this idea wholesale; check out Boethius' Christianization of this concept).For the Roman, this larger good came to mean the spread of law across the face of the planet; this law was to be spread through Roman imperial conquest and was called the Law of Nations. The grand design for history, then, was the spread of the Roman Empire and her laws.Therefore, each and every function a Roman undertook for the state, whether as a farmer or foot-soldier, a philosopher or emperor, partook of this larger purpose or meaning of world history. The central values of this complex are officium, or "duty," which is the responsibility to perform the functions into which you have been born to the best of your abilities, and pietas, or "respect for authority." Each station in life has its duties; every situation in life has duties or obligations incumbent on it.The primary duty one owes is to the state; since God is using the Roman state to further law and civilization, performing one's duty is a religious act. The principal being to which one owes respect is, of course, God; since God is working out his will in history by using the Roman state and Roman officials (derived from officium ), the respect one shows for Roman authorities is also a respect shown for God and the logos.

65. Anthropocentrism is a charge of human chauvinism and an acknowledgement of human ontological boundaries. Anthropocentrism has provided order and structure to humans’ understanding of the world, while unavoidably expressing the limits of that understanding. This collection explores the assumptions behind the label ‘anthropocentrism’, critically enquiring into the meaning of ‘human’. It addresses the epistemological and ontological problems of charges of anthropocentrism, questioning whether all human views are inherently anthropocentric. In addition, it examines the potential scope for objective, empathetic, relational, or ‘other’ views that trump anthropocentrism. With a principal focus on ethical questions concerning animals, the environment and the social, the essays ultimately cohere around the question of the non-human, be it animal, ecosystem, god, or machine.

66. The European Renaissance is divided into Early, High, and Late periods in order to suggest a continuing evolution of culture. Renaissance art demonstrates the evolution in shifting style, form, and subject that coincides with a re-emergence of classical values based on the revival of knowledge from antiquity. In addition, a new humanism developed that focused on concerns of the individual’s experience and intuition, without displacing spiritual concerns. However, nineteenth-century Swiss philosopher Jacob Burckhardt was, perhaps, the first scholar to raise the question of whether a clear divide between the Middle Ages and a so-called Renaissance could really be identified.Becoming the RenaissanceThe intellectual atmosphere, particularly in the wealthy city-state of Florence, was the perfect setting for the principles of humanism to emerge. Individuals who embodied those principles have become time-honored emblems of the Renaissance genius: the universal man, or l’uomo universale. As a period of transition, the Renaissance harbored an astonishing amount of interrelated scientific and artistic innovation. Most notably, Leonardo da Vinci embodied the model humanist by engaging in a broad array of experimentation that contributed to the brief period of the High Renaissance, which was exemplified by dignified, stable, and often majestic art that “unifie[d] and balance[d] the conflicting experiences of an entire culture” (Tansey and Kleiner 1996).

67. Contemporary philosophy is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the end of the 19th century with theprofessionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy.The phrase "contemporary philosophy" is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that refers to a specific period in the history of Western philosophy. However, the phrase is often confused with modern philosophy (which refers to an earlier period in Western philosophy),postmodern philosophy (which refers to continental philosophers' criticisms of modern philosophy), and with a non-technical use of the phrase referring to any recent philosophic work. The Contemporary philosophy:The current period of the western philosophy starting from the nineteenth century is referred to as contemporary philosophy. The rise of the continental philosophy and the analytic philosophy has been the important focus in the times of the contemporary philosophy. The term Contemporary philosophy refers back to a certain period in the history of the western philosophy. This phrase is considered as a technical terminology in the field of philosophy. The phrase contemporary philosophy is often confused with the postmodern philosophy. But the difference is that the postmodern philosophy is mainly associated with the continental philosophy on the other hand the modern philosophy is mainly refers to the earlier period in the western philosophy. However the non technical usage of the term may refer to any of the recent philosophical work.At the end of the nineteenth century, philosophy underwent the process of professionalization. The process of professionalization is a social process in which the group norms of conduct and the qualification for the members to be accepted are being established in any occupation or trade.  The professionalism has got severe impact in America which has lead to the reformation of the American higher-education system professionally by the German model. Even in England, professionalism in its major cause is tied up with the higher-education. It brought a complete reformation in the education system.The main professionally body for the philosophers in the United States has been created by the combination of the American Philosophical Association and the American Psychological Association. This association holds the major responsibility of administering the top honours of the profession in addition to the other duties that this organization has.The work of Franz Brento, Edmund Husserl and Martin has been considered as the beginning of theContemporary philosophy and the modern philosophy. The dominant ways and forms of Hegelianism has been turned out by these philosopher as they turned away from his philosophies developing a new conceptual analysis which is based on the recent developments in the logic. The paper “On Denoting” by Russell is the good example for this which has been observed in philosophy as the paradigm of the analytic programThough the contemporary philosophers identify themselves as analytic, there are many different and divergent assumptions and interests of the contemporary philosophers that reject the fundamentals of the analytic philosophy. These basics are defined between 1900 and 1960 by the analytic movements. The analytic philosophy has got a particular style in which is characterized by precision and narrow topics.

68. Among the political theories I find most appealing, is that of Badiou’s.  There are roughly four reasons for this:First, and perhaps foremost, Badiou does not treat everything as political.  For Badiou, politics is only one truth-procedure among others (the three others being love, art, and science.  For Badiou, politics is necessarily rare and exceptional.  The mere fact that something involves power or exploitation or oppression does not yet make it political.  Politics, for Badiou, is something very specific and is not simply or merely the presence of power.Second, Badiou shares the position of object-oriented ontology in separating ontology and politics.  Ontology is one thing, politics is another, art is yet another, and love is yet another.  One cannot be reduced to another.  Indeed, as Badiou will write in Manifesto for Philosophy, Philosophy suffers whenever it is sutured or reduced to one of its conditions.  Moreover, each of the generic truth-procedures suffers when it is sutured to another truth procedure.   What Badiou says of art also holds of politics:  Art, says Badiou, is characterized by “[i]mmanence”, in that it “…is rigorously coextensive with the truths that it generates,” and it is characterized by “[s]ingularity” in that “…[t]hese truths are given nowhere else than in art” (Handbook of Inaesthetics, 9).  The truths of politics are immanent and singular to politics, and politics is under no condition to be artistic, scientific, or amorous.  Likewise, the truths of a love are immanent and singular to that love, and that love is under no condition to be scientific, artistic, or political.  Each of the four generic truth-procedures must be given its free reign to elaborate and develop its own immanent and singular truths.

69. Hindu philosophy is traditionally divided into six āstika (Sanskritआस्तिक "orthodox") schools of thought,[1] or darśanam (दर्शनम्, "view"), which accept the Vedas as supreme revealed scriptures. Three other nāstika (नास्तिक "heterodox") schools don't draw upon the Vedas as the sole primary authoritative text, but may emphasise other traditions of thought. The āstika schools are:

  1.  Samkhya, an atheistic and strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter.
  2.  Yoga, a school emphasising meditationcontemplation and liberation.
  3.  Nyaya or logic, explores sources of knowledgeNyāya Sūtras.
  4.  Vaisheshika, an empiricist school of atomism
  5.  Mimāṃsā, an anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy
  6.  Vedanta, the last segment of knowledge in the Vedas, or the 'Jnan' (knowledge) 'Kanda' (section). Vedanta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period.

The nāstika schools are (in chronological order):

  1.  Cārvāka
  2.  Jainism
  3.  Buddhism

However, medieval philosophers like Vidyāraṇya classify Indian philosophy into sixteen schools, where schools belonging to SaivaPāṇini and Raseśvara thought are included with others, and the three Vedantic schools AdvaitaVishishtadvaita and Dvaita (which had emerged as distinct schools by then) are classified separately.[2]

In Hindu history, the distinction of the six orthodox schools was current in the Gupta period "golden age" of Hinduism. With the disappearance of Vaisheshika and Mimamsa, it was obsolete by the later Middle Ages, when the various sub-schools of Vedanta (Dvaita "dualism", Advaita Vedanta "non-dualism" and others) began to rise to prominence as the main divisions of religious philosophy. Nyaya survived into the 17th century as Navya Nyaya "Neo-Nyaya", while Samkhya gradually lost its status as an independent school, its tenets absorbed into Yoga and Vedanta.

70. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni[1] (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known as Michelangelo, was an ItalianRenaissance paintersculptorarchitect, poet, and engineer. Along with Leonardo da Vinci, he is often called a "Renaissance man" which means that he had great talent in many areas.Michelangelo lived an extremely busy life, creating a great number of artworks. Some of Michelangelo's works are among the most famous that have ever been made. They include two very famous marble statues, the Pieta in Saint Peter's Basilica and David which once stood in a piazza in Florence but is now in the Accademia Gallery. His most famous paintings are huge frescos, the Sistine Chapel Ceiling and the Last Judgement. His most famous work of architecture is the east end and dome of Saint Peter's Basilica.A lot is known about Michelangelo's life because he left many letters, poems and journals. Because he was so famous, he became the very first artist to have his biography (story of his life) published while he was still living.[2] His biographer, Giorgio Vasari, said that he was the greatest artist of the Renaissance. He was sometimes called Il Divino ("the divine one").[3] Other artists said that he hadterribilità, (his works were so grand and full of strong emotion that they were scary). Many other artists who saw his work tried to have the same emotional quality. From this idea of terribilità came a style of art called Mannerism.

71. The Renaissance, that is, the period that extends roughly from the middle of the fourteenth century to the beginning of the seventeen century, was a time of intense, all-encompassing, and, in many ways, distinctive philosophical activity. A fundamental assumption of the Renaissance movement was that the remains of classical antiquity constituted an invaluable source of excellence to which debased and decadent modern times could turn in order to repair the damage brought about since the fall of the Roman Empire. It was often assumed that God had given a single unified truth to humanity and that the works of ancient philosophers had preserved part of this original deposit of divine wisdom. This idea not only laid the foundation for a scholarly culture that was centered on ancient texts and their interpretation, but also fostered an approach to textual interpretation that strove to harmonize and reconcile divergent philosophical accounts. Stimulated by newly available texts, one of the most important hallmarks of Renaissance philosophy is the increased interest in primary sources of Greek and Roman thought, which were previously unknown or little read. The renewed study of Neoplatonism, Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Skepticism eroded faith in the universal truth of Aristotelian philosophy and widened the philosophical horizon, providing a rich seedbed from which modern science and modern philosophy gradually emerged.

72. Karl Heinrich Marx (German pronunciation: [kaːɐ̯l ˈhaɪnʀɪç ˈmaːɐ̯ks], 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher,economistsociologisthistorianjournalist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx's work in economics laid the basis for the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and has influenced much of subsequent economic thought.[4][5][6][7] He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867–1894).Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier in the Prussian Rhineland, Marx studied at the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin, where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. After his studies, he wrote for a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out his theory of dialectical materialism. He moved to Paris in 1843, where he began writing for other radical newspapers and met Fredrick Engels, who would become his lifelong friend and collaborator. In 1849 he was exiled and moved to London together with his wife and children where he continued writing and formulating his theories about social and economic activity. He also campaigned for socialism and became a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association.Marx's theories about society, economics and politics – collectively known as Marxism – hold that human societies progress throughclass struggle: a conflict between an ownership class that controls production and a dispossessed labouring class that provides the labour for production. He called capitalism the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie," believing it to be run by the wealthy classes for their own benefit; and he predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. He argued that class antagonisms under capitalism between the bourgeoisie and proletariat would eventuate in the working class' conquest of political power in the form of a dictatorship of the proletariat and eventually establish a classless society, socialism or communism, a society governed by a free association of producers.Along with believing in the inevitability of socialism and communism, Marx actively fought for their implementation, arguing that social theorists and underprivileged people alike should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic change.Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.[11][12] Revolutionary socialist governments espousing Marxist concepts took power in a variety of countries in the 20th century, leading to the formation of such socialist states as theSoviet Union in 1922 and the People's Republic of China in 1949. Many labour unions and workers' parties worldwide are influenced by Marxism, while various theoretical variants, such as LeninismStalinismTrotskyism, and Maoism, were developed from them. Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science.[

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4. лабораторная работа Отсюда возникает что эффективнее проверяет знания ~ тест или устный ответ преп
5. Реферат- Врожденный вывих бедра
6. Реферат- Япония - страна контрастов
7. Создание страховой брокерской компании ООО Сервис
8. Лекции по педологии
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10. аналог давно существующего в библиотечном деле понятия картотеки английское слово file и означает картотеку.html
11. тема ее элементы и их взаимосвязь
12. Принцип свободы совести Взгляды светской науки и теологии на религию имеют существенные различия
13. звездам дано танцевать ярко феерично вдохновенно и зажигательно Неужели только ценой огромной недосту
14. Александр Розенбаум
15. Словарь по этике 1983
16. необходимо привлечь дополнительные представления 2 Величина являющаяся мерой рассеивания в термодинам
17. Социально-психологические методы управления предприятием
18. Тема- Загальні вимоги безпеки до технологічного обладнання та процесів Мета- Ознайомлення з.
19. коконтагиозная вирусная болезнь свиней всех возрастных групп характеризующаяся острым течением рвотой из
20. Тема- Противопожарная безопасность и борьба с пожаром на судне Переключатель