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ЗАДАНИЕ 5 Грамматика 1

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КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №5 

Грамматика: 1.Условные предложения.. 2. Грамматическме функции should, would. 3. Обороты с инфинитивом и причастием, равнозначные придаточным предложениям. 4.Различные значения слов: as, because, because of, due to, for, since, both … and,  either … or, neither … nor.

                        

Вариант 1

1.Перепишите и устно переведите следующие условные предложения. Напротив каждого из них напишите тип условия (реальное, маловероятное, нереальное). Подчеркните предложение, для которого верно утверждение “Peter is a university student.”

1. If Peter had entered the university a year before he would have graduated from it last year. 2. If Peter enters the university this year he will graduate from it in five years. 3. If Peter entered the university this year he could become an engineer in five years.

2. Перепишите предложения и переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения should, would.

 1. It would be impossible to simplify the production of  aluminium without using the electrothermal method. 2 Had man learnt to control thermonuclear explosion he would have a practically inexhaustible source of energy. 3. I think you shouldn’t tell him about it.

3. Перепишите предложения и переведите их,  принимая во внимание, что инфинитивные и причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 1. Scientists consider solar energy to be an ideal source of power for artificial satellites. 2. Some materials undergo changes when subjected to heat and pressure. 3. There are still many problems to be solved concerning housing construction.  4. Matter is said to exit in four states- solid, liquid, gaseous and plasma, the latter being a hot ionized gas.

4. Перепишите предложения и переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения подчеркнутых слов.

 1. This metal possesses high strength due to the addition of tungsten. 2. High strength of this metal is due to the addition of tungsten. 3. Copper is in a wide use for cables because it is a good conductor of electricity. 4. Copper is widely used for cables because of its good conductivity of electricity. 5. Both sedimentation (отстой) and filtration are water purification methods.

5. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно  переведите 1,2,3 абзацы.

Varieties of Energy

1. There exist many sources of energy in the world both potential and kinetic. One source consists in water falling from a high level such as an upland lake. Another source is wind or moving air. Others consist in tides in the sea, heat from subterranean sources and coal deposits and oil wells yielding mineral oil.

2. But all these sources and stores of energy are not equally useful to mankind. Moreover some stores of energy such as coal and oil can never be replaced by us when once used up. On the other hand stores of water are continually being replaced by rain whereas wind and tides will not, as far as we know, ever cease to exit. A very important matter is the conversion of energy from one form to another, the form most required by us being mechanical rotational energy.

3. Appliances for converting energy from one form to another are called engines. Thus a heat-engine is a machine for converting heat energy into mechanical energy of rotation by the combustion of coal or oil. A turbine or water engine can convert the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical rotational energy.

4. The efficiency of an engine is the ratio of the energy obtained in the desired form to that given to the engine in the available form. Thus having given a heat-engine much energy by combusting coal or oil we take from it mechanical energy in kinetic form, either rotational or motional.

Пояснения к тексту

1.as far as we know – насколько мы знаем

2.matter – вопрос

6. Перепишите вопрос и выберите правильный ответ.

 How does a heat-engine convert heat-energy into mechanical energy?

  1.  by the combustion of coal or oil.
    1.  by giving a heat-engine much rotational energy.
      1.  by using the kinetic energy of falling water.

Вариант 2

1. Перепишите и устно переведите следующие условные предложения. Напротив каждого из них напишите тип условия (реальное , маловероятное, нереальное). Подчеркните предложение, для которого верно утверждение  “The student didn't work hard."

1. If the student works hard he will pass his exam. 2. If the student hadn’t worked hard he wouldn’t have passed his exam. 3. If the student had worked hard he would have passed his exam.

2. Перепишите предложения и переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения should, would.

 1. You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspapers. 2. You should have been here an hour ago. 3. In summer we would all get up early and go for a swim.

3. Перепишите предложения и переведите их,  принимая во внимание, что инфинитивные и причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 1. Concrete having reached its initial set, the workers shouldn’t disturb it. 2. If disturbed after it has reached its initial set, concrete should never be used. 3. They wanted the workers to improve the quality of prefab units. 4. Prefab units are known to be widely used in the construction of both residential and industrial buildings.

4. Перепишите предложения и переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения подчеркнутых слов.

 1. We add steel to concrete in order to make it stronger. 2. In spite of bad weather the builders went on working on the construction site. 3. Go as far as the traffic lights then turn left. 4. I’ve known him since we met at Tom’s place.

5. I haven’t seen him since.

5.Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и переведите письменно 1-8 абзацы.

The Properties of Building Materials

1. Materials that are used for structural purposes should meet several requirements. In most cases it is important that they should be hard, durable, fire-resistant and easily fastened together.

2. The most commonly used materials are steel, concrete, stone, wood and brick. They differ in hardness, durability and fire-resistance.

3. Wood is the most ancient structural material. It is light, cheap and easy to work. But wood has certain disadvantages: it burns and decays.

4. Stone belongs to one of the oldest building materials used by man. Its properties are mechanical strength, compactness, porosity, sound and heat insulation and fire-resistance.

5. Bricks were known many thousands of years ago. They are the examples of artificial building materials.

6. Concrete is referred to as one of the most important building materials. Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, crushed stone and water. Due to its durability it is widely used in underwater structures.

7. Steel has come into general use with the development of industry. Its manufacture requires special equipment and skilled labour.

8. Plastics combine all the fine characteristics of building materials with good insulating properties. It is nowonder that the architects and engineers have turned to them to add beauty to modern homes and offices.

9. All building materials are divided into three groups: 1) Main building materials such as rocks and artificial stones, timber and metals. 2) Binding materials such as lime, gypsum and cement. 3) Secondary or auxiliary materials which are used for interior parts of buildings.

10.We use main building materials for bearing structures. Binding materials are used for making artificial stone and for joining different planes. For interior finish of  buildings we use secondary materials.

Пояснения к тексту

1.crushed stone –  щебень

2.It is no wonder that – Неудивительно, что

3.turn to – обратиться

4.interior finish – внутренняя отделка

6. Перепишите вопрос и выберите правильный ответ.

 What are main building materials used for?

1. for interior finish

2. for bearing structures

3. for making artificial stone.

Вариант 3

1. Перепишите и устно переведите следующие условные предложения. Напротив каждого из них напишите тип условия (реальное, маловероятное, нереальное.)  Подчеркните предложение, для которого верно утверждение “The children played football at a distance from the house.”

1. The children will break the window if they don’t play football at a distance from the house. 2. The children wouldn’t have broken the window if they had played football at a distance from the house. 3. The children would have broken the window if they hadn’t played football at a distance from the house.

2. Перепишите предложения и переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения should, would.

 1. You should work harder if you want to pass your exam. 2. It would be useful to have juice instead of coffee but I like it so much.3. He would sit for hours on the shore looking at the water.

3. Перепишите предложения и переведите их,  принимая во внимание, что инфинитивные и причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 1. A new type of crane having been tested, the builders put it into operation. 2. Unless treated, the water cannot be used for drinking and domestic purposes.

3. This is the branch of building engineering to be taken into consideration 4. The bearing capacity of the ground was too low for the builders to start the construction work of a tower block (высотный дом).

4. Перепишите предложения и переведите, обращая внимание на различные значения подчеркнутых слов.

 1. The chief engineer is either at the office or at the laboratory. 2. As soon as you finish your calculations, we shall begin the tests. 3. All the calculations were made by means of an electronic computer. 4. In order to protect the surface from heat and cold it was covered with special substance. 5. The engine didn’t operate because of the bad fuel.

5. Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-3 абзацы.

Reinforced Concrete

1. Reinforced concrete is a combination of two of the strongest structural materials, concrete and steel.

2. This term is applied to a construction in which steel bars or heavy steel mesh are properly embeded in concrete. The steel is put in position and concrete is poured around and over it, then tamped in place so that the steel is completely embeded. When the concrete hardens and sets, the resulting material gains great strength. This new structural concrete came into practical application at the turn of the 19th century. The first results of the tests of the reinforced concrete beams were published in 1887. Since that time the development of reinforced concrete  work  has made great progress. And the reasons of this progress are quite evident. Concrete has poor elastic and tensional properties, but it is rigid, strong in compression, durable under and above ground and in the presence or absence of air and water, it increases its strength with age, it is fireproof.

3. Steel has great tensional, compressive and elastic properties, but it is not durable being exposed to moisture, it loses its strength with age, or being subjected to high temperature. So, what is the effect of the addition of steel reinforcement to concrete?

4. Steel does not undergo shrinkage or drying but concrete does and therefore the steel acts as a restraining medium in a reinforced concrete member. Shrinkage causes tensile stresses in the concrete which are balanced by compressive stresses in the steel. For getting the best from reinforced concrete the following consideration should be kept in mind:

1. For general use the most suitable proportions of cement and aggregate are: 1 part cement, 2 parts sand and 4 parts of gravel.

2. Only fresh water free from organic matter should be used for reinforced work. Sea water is not allowed.

3. Homogeneity of the concrete is a very important requirement. Steel constructions with reinforced concrete have become the most widely used building materials invented in centuries.

Пояснения к тексту

1. put in position – укладывать, устанавливать

2. the resulting material – полученный в результате материал

3. at the turn of the century – в  конце века

4. restraining medium – сдерживающая среда (средство)

5. keep in mind – помнить

6. fresh water – пресная вода

7. free from –  не содержащий

6. Перепишите вопрос и выберите правильный ответ.

 Why do we add steel to reinforced concrete?

1. to balance tensile stresses in the concrete.

2. because concrete  loses its strength with age.

3. because it doesn’t undergo drying.


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