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Role nd plce of Culture nd Lnguge study in system of sciences Ethnolinguistics Sociolinguistics Linguculture study Ethnolinguistics is field of linguistics which studies the r

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    Айгуль Влад Баян Алия Яна         

     

Theoretical questions on Lingua-cultural studies

1) Role and place of Culture and Language study in a system of sciences (Ethnolinguistics,

Sociolinguistics, Lingua-culture study)

  1.  Ethnolinguistics  is a field of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups perceive the world. It is the combination between ethnology and linguistics. Ethnolinguists study the way perception and conceptualization influences language, and show how this is linked to different cultures and societies. An example is the way spatial orientation is expressed in various cultures. Cultural Linguistics (capitalized) refers to a related branch of linguistics that explores the relationship between language, culture, and conceptualization. Cultural Linguistics draws on, but is not limited to, the theoretical notions and analytical tools of cognitive linguistics and cognitive anthropology. Central to the approach of Cultural Linguistics are notions of "cultural schema" and "cultural model". Language is a social-cultural-geographical phenomenon. There is a deep relationship between language, culture and society. It is in society that man acquires and uses language. Socio-linguistics is the study of speech functions according to the speaker, the hearer, their relationship and contact, the context and the situation, the topic of discourse, the purpose of discourse, and the form of discourse. It studies the causes and consequences of linguistic behavior in human societies; it is concerned with the function of language, and studies language from without. Thus, we see a unique bond between language and culture. For Saussure:“There is an absolute relation between language and culture”

Language with its different varieties is the subject matter of socio-linguistics. Socio-linguistics studies the varied linguistic realizations of socio-cultural meanings which in a sense are both familiar and unfamiliar and the occurrence of everyday social interactions which are nevertheless relative to particular cultures, societies, social groups, speech communities, languages, dialects, varieties, styles. That is why language variation generally forms a part of socio-linguistic study. Language can vary, not only from one individual to the next, but also from one sub-section of speech-community (family, village, town, region) to another. People of different age, sex, social classes, occupations, or cultural groups in the same community will show variations in their speech. Thus language varies in geographical and social space.  According to socio-linguists, a language is code.  Every individual have some idiosyncratic linguistic features in his or her use of language. When using a sociocultural approach to learning, the starting point is to see language and culture as inseparable entities that are continually reconstituted in a dynamic way. For this reason, in the discussion below about second language literacy I adopt the term 'linguaculture' (Friedrich, 1989; Agar, 1994) which recognises that culture is the foundation on which language is built. Friedrich argues that language and culture have 'a common ground that is shared by both phenomena and that the common ground is usually more important than what is not shared' (Friedrich, 1989, p. 307). The word linguaculture carries this belief and therefore is an appropriate term to use when discussing language in a sociocultural context.

2) .     Define the notions  Culture and Language. The notion of culture has turned into a popular way to link macro-social phenomena to micro-social observation in the social sciences. Besides of that, authors from cross-cultural and intercultural research continue to point at today's enormous increase of cross-cultural exchange and interaction . Linguists from different schools  continue to claim a priority role for linguistic approaches in cross-cultural and intercultural communication research. In these respects, they point at the fact that intercultural interaction will always and necessarily be carried out by means of (verbal) communication and that consequently, empirical methods from linguistics will tend to provide the most valuable insights.

Since culture had never had its own place in classical linguistic theory, linguists got used to borrow notions and definitions on what culture was supposed to be from other academic disciplines. As a consequence, linguists today have a wide choice of concepts of culture at their disposal. This variety may on the one hand enrich the potential of linguistic research. On the other hand it should be kept in mind that, although many authors would reject this for their research, one of the main motivations for doing research on intercultural communication might still be seen in the mission to find ways to improve people's intercultural competence. From this point of view, culture is seen as a variable that will on the one hand influence the outcome of people's interaction, but that on the other hand may be actively used by interactants to improve their outcomes in terms of mutual understanding and/or agreement. From this perspective, the multitude of optionally available notions of culture may lead to significantly diverging judgments of people's intercultural competence vs. their potential scope of action. However, besides the field of research on intercultural education , this insight seems to run the risk of being neglected in current research and discourse on intercultural communication. Putting recommendations from research into practice, the fact that what individuals are advised to do is largely pre-determined by theoretical considerations instead of practical experiences sometimes tends to get out of sight. Based on the notions described above, it is clear that the language was intended in this paper is a communication tool produced by the tool man has said symbol, system, meaning, and social are arbitrary and culturally. Every language has a symbol. With the symbol will facilitate communication, although not directly dealing with the object. This is because each symbol already contains a concept or understanding. In order for the meaning of the symbols are understood, every language user must understand and follow the system language is used. Language system contains rules or rules that must be obeyed by the user's language. If not obeyed, the delivery information may be chaotic or communication cannot happen.

3) Evaluate the relationship between  Culture and Language. The relationship between language and culture is deeply rooted. Language is used to maintain and convey culture and cultural ties. Different ideas stem from differing language use within one’s culture and the whole intertwining of these relationships start at one’s birth. Everyone’s views are dependent on the culture which has influenced them, as well as being described using the language which has been shaped by that culture. The understanding of a culture and its people can be enhanced by the knowledge of their language. This brings us to an interesting point brought up by Emmitt and Pollock (1997), who argue that even though people are brought up under similar behavioural backgrounds or cultural situations but however speak different languages, their world view may be very different. As Sapir-Whorf argues, different thoughts are brought about by the use of different forms of language. One is limited by the language used to express one’s ideas. Different languages will create different limitations, therefore a people who share a culture but speak different languages, will have different world views. Still, language is rooted in culture and culture is reflected and passed on by language from one generation to the next. The relationship between language and thought is that the language one speaks affects how one thinks and thus their interaction with the world. Thus the level at which you know a language may directly affect how wide you think about the world and related matters. This connection was noticed due to the fact that different languages express the world differently. Each culture has its own peculiarities and throws special influence on the language system. For example, referring to the same common domestic animal, English chooses the word “dog”, while Chinese has its own character; Chinese has the phrase“”while English has the expression “running dog”, but the meanings attributed to the two expressions are completely different according to Chinese culture and Western culture respectively. To Westerners, “running dog” has a positive meaning since the word “dog”, in most cases, is associated with an image of an animal pet-the favorite friend, thus they have the phrases “lucky dog” it is usually used to describe everyday life and behavior, as in “Love me, love my dog”“Every dog has its day”).. Since Chinese associates derogatory meaning to the character” depending on the cultural difference.

4) .     Compare and contrast the notions Culture and Civilization. There has always been a relationship between the culture and between the civilization of the people that live in different countries. The culture and civilization in different countries almost go hand in hand with one another. The culture will sometimes change from time to time but the original culture is always remembered and used in some kind of way. The civilization in different countries usually does not always change too much. The different cultures of countries is what makes each country unique.

Firstly, civilization in theory is bigger than culture in which an entire civilization can encompass one single unit of culture. Civilization is a bigger unit than culture because it is a complex aggregate of the society that dwells within a certain area, along with its forms of government, norms, and even culture. Thus, culture is just a spec or a portion of an entire civilization. For example, the Egyptian civilization has an Egyptian culture in the same way as the Greek civilization has their Greek culture.

A culture ordinarily exists within a civilization. In this regard, each civilization can contain not only one but several cultures. Comparing culture and civilization is like showing the difference between language and the country to which it is being used.

Culture can exist in itself whereas civilization cannot be called a civilization if it does not possess a certain culture. It’s just like asking how a nation can exist on its own without the use of a medium of communication. Hence, a civilization will become empty if it does not have its culture, no matter how little it is. 1.Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization.

2.Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formal civilization whereas a civilization will never grow and exist without the element of culture.

3.Culture can be tangible or intangible whereas civilization is something that is more tangible because it is what you see as a whole

4.Culture can be transmitted through symbols in the form of language whereas an entire civilization cannot be transmitted by mere language alone.

5)    Give your understanding of a Linguistic Picture of the World. The purpose of the study is linguistic Picture of the World and Language Personality(Identity). The present paper examines how linguistic worldview can be the interpretation of reality? What does lexis mean? What is the description of lexical meaning? I analyzed the main ideas of these comprehensions.

     Linguistic worldview is a language-entrenched interpretation of reality. It is interpretation, not a refection, therefore the interpretation is a result of subjective perception and conceptualization of reality performed by the speakers of a given language. I assume that linguistic worldview is so far from the lexis . The lexis provides access to the conceptual sphere of a given culture. Sapir emphasised that <vocabulary is a very sensitive index of the culture of the people>.Consequently, we may say that vocabulary is the main part of language while speakers are communicate in the society. Lexis include the organization of lexical  semantic fields (colour, measurement terms, names of emotions, values).  The description of lexical meaning is lexical semantic field by means of cognitive definition.

      The speaker should consider that stereotypes is <building of language>. I revealed the main aspects of stereotypes. Some of the aspects forming a stereotype are more salient then others. Stereotypes are not opinion about members of social groups, stereotypes are mechanism of knowledge about relations in the world.

6) Fine out the difference between a Conceptual and Linguistic Picture of the World.  The conceptual form of a picture of the world is the "image" of the world which has been not invested with any system of signs. But it can be transferred in the sign form. Division of the world by means of language is carried out by imposing on the world of a conceptual grid (i.e. by allocation kontseptov) and a situational grid (i.e. by allocation of situations) (Sweetser 1990 - tsit. On Kravchenko 1997: 8). Thus, relations between the language form and its function with necessity reflect conceptual structure peculiar to the person and the general principles kognitivnoj kategorizatsii. It is impossible to describe language in conformity terms between the Word and the World if under the World to understand the picture of the world generated by our experience (Goats, Pruzhanin 1984: 99).

Along with a rich conceptual picture of the world (KKM) which in the form of concepts and submissions is in consciousness of the person, in parallel it there is a verbal or language picture of the world (concept vs. The language form). Language is connected with the validity through sign correlation, that is it displays in its sign method.

Occurrence of concept of a language picture of the world (JAKM) in linguistics is an occurrence symptom gnoseolingvistiki as parts of the linguistics developed on the anthropological beginnings. The concept of a language picture of the world allows to solve more deeply a question on a parity of language and the validity, invariant and idiomatic in processes language "отображения1* the validity as difficult process of interpretation by the person of the world.

7)Define factors that create a national picture of the world. The existence of national peculiarities in world mapping (as a process and its result) by the means of mental or public lexicon is a commonplace for the modern linguistics (q.v.: [3; 7; 10]). Necessity to establish the concept of “language world picture” in literary language can be explained by the necessity to understand the situation of polyvariance existing in this sphere. Moreover, the concept of World Picture can be determined in 2 ways: by the description of inner society and with the help foreign observers. Actuality of research, represented in works of many linguists, connected with the lack of scientific description of language units which expresses the national specificity of nations. Another point of the work is the correlation of Language and Culture. The relationship between language and culture may be viewed from two opposite angles: On the one hand language may be seen as closely associated with a culture: language and culture are seen as inseparable phenomena. On the other hand language may be seen as an instrument of communication that may be used with any subject and anywhere in the world: language and culture are seen as separated phenomena. None of these positions is satisfying. The first one emphasizes that language is culture-bound, and one is not far from a conception of a closed universe of language, culture, history and mentality – a national romanticism that is misleading in the light of international and transnational processes in the (late-) modern world.

8.     Identify language that best fits your language personality

9.     Find out the role of lexis and grammar in forming of the language personality

10.   Comment on the culture as communication/ Each culture has set rules that its members take for granted. Few of us are aware of our own cultural biases because cultural imprinting is begun at a very early age. And while some of a culture's knowledge, rules, beliefs, values, phobias, and anxieties are taught explicitly, most of the information is absorbed subconsciously.\The challenge for multinational communication has never been greater. Worldwide business organizations have discovered that intercultural communication is a subject of importance—not just because of increased globalization, but also because their domestic workforce is growing more and more diverse, ethnically and culturally.\We are all individuals, and no two people belonging to the same culture are guaranteed to respond in exactly the same way. However, generalizations are valid to the extent that they provide clues on what you will most likely encounter when dealing with members of a particular culture. To understand the implications of this communication-culture relationship, it is necessary to think in terms of ongoing communication processes rather than a single communication event. For example, when a three-person group first meets, the members bring with them individual thought and behavioral patterns from previous communication experiences and from other cultures of which they are, or have been, a part. As individuals start to engage in communication with the other members of this new group, they begin to create a set of shared experiences and ways of talking about them.

11) Identify the notion Concept. According to the Russian linguist Stepanov, “concepts are just phrases, fragments of conversation <...>, but they are subtle phrases that force our minds createsuch content, as if it has been familiar to us for a long time” (2007, 248). Concept can be understood as a bunch of culture in the consciousness of people; it is something in the form of which culture enters the mental world. And, moreover, people throughthe concept enter culture and affect it. Concepts are not only contemplated, they are experienced. They are the subject of emotions, likes and dislikes, and sometimes collisions. The concept is also a discrete unit of the collective consciousness, which is stored in the national memory of native speakers in verbally determinate form. As a cognitive unit of meaning, a concept is an abstract idea or a mental symbol sometimes defined as a “unit of knowledge”, built from other units which act as a concept’s characteristic. A concept is typically associated with a corresponding representation in a language such as a single meaning of a term  Notional component of the concept is stored in the verbal form. A figurative component is non-verbal and and can be described or interpreted at most.

Concepts includes such semiotic categories as image, the notion and meaning in the reduced form, as a kind of “hyperonym” (generic term) and characterized as heterogeneous and multi-featured. The concept acquired the discursive meaning representation from the notion, from the image it appropriated metaphor and emotiveness, and from the meaning it acquired the inclusion of the name (concept).

Concept has a certain structure that is not rigid; it is a necessary condition for the existence of the concept and its entry into the conceptual realm. Concept includes all the mental characteristics of a phenomenon and provides an understanding of reality. Ordered collection of concepts in the mind of a person forms his/her conceptual realm. Language is one of the means to access to the people’s mind, their conceptual realm, the content and structure of concepts as units of thinking.

12.   Comment on the sphere of the Concept in the Lingua-cultural Studies. Linguo-cultural concept as a subject of study of linguo-culture appears (lingvokulturologija) to the researchers as a cultural, mental and linguistic education. According to the Stepanov’s definition, linguo-cultural concept is a mental unit, aimed at a comprehensive study of language, consciousness and culture. The linguo-cultural concept differs from other units in its mental nature. Mentality is perceived as a guided collection of images and perceptions. Bloom defines mentality as the perception of the world in the categories and forms of the native language that connects the intellectual and spiritual qualities of national character in its typical manifestatio. Many scholars agree that the mentality is easier to describe than to define. Mentality of deeper thinking, standards of behaviour represents the internal willingness of a person to act in a certain way. Linguo-cultural concept differs from other mental units by the presence of the value component. Value is always in the centre of the concept.A linguo-concept consists of distinct evaluative, figurative and conceptual components. The notional component of the concept is stored in the verbal

13) Define the notions of Natural character and Mentality/ Each nation has its own character, the French are not like the English, and the Dutch not like the Germans. However, the attempt to define what makes each of the characters distinct will provide massive difficulties. The idea of a 'national character' is based on the assumption that people from one nation share basic common behavioral patterns and personality traits, differentiable from other nations. The concept has however been often criticized, and is often only fueled by perceptions of the one nation towards the other, resulting in a number of attributes that one nation apparently displays: the Germans are orderly, hard-working and humorless... However, findings in that field have been often contradictory, particularly from highly diversified cultures.. Here we come to the problem of cultural stereotypes which usually shadow the vision of a certain nation without giving a chance of objective analysis of the problem. The term “mentality” was introduced by French ethnologist and social anthropologist Lucien Levy-Bruhl studying the prelogical thinking. Philosophic understanding of notion “mentality” connects with the name of German thinker Ernst Cassirer.

So we would like to say about Kazakh and English mentality. Kazakhstan is the ground of an ancient civilization of the Eurasian continent where during centuries powerful empires and countries arose, died and again rose from ashes. There were the major trading ways connecting the East and West. The historical and cultural associations of ancient tribes appear basis of development of the Kazakh ethnos.

The mentality of a person is influenced with different factors like environment, climate, a geographical landscape, a society, religion, customs and traditions, nature as a whole.  The geographical environment influence is the most essential. Kazakh people are Nomads and they moved from one place to another. During long history they have lived in steppes and their life was not easy. The man was a soldier, a herdsman and the head of the family at the same time. That is why there exists a proverb: “It is not enough seventy handicrafts for a Dzhigit”. Mentality of English people includes tactfulness, politeness, reticence. Also English people are compliant and patient to other people: “Live and let live”; “One cannot run with the hare and hunt with the hounds”; “A cat may look at a king”; “Love me, love my dog. He that loves the tree, loves the branch”.

Englishmen show their politeness and respect during conversation. The following saying emphasizes the importance of etiquette for them: “Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth”; “When in Rome, do as Romans do. Don’t carry coals to New castle”.

14) .   Evaluate the role of stereotypes in culture.The stereotype would be the 'normal type' or point-of-reference that all other individuals would be measured against. For example: He was the stereotypical high school bully save for the fact that he was fascinated with flowers and objects of art of a disturbingly Raphealian era. In a scientific real the stereotype would be referred to as a control sample. A person cannot tell just by categorizing something, that it is ‘normal’ and should not confine us to one certain type of person. “The role of stereotypes is to make visible the invisible” therefore allowing us to have an idea of what is to come, although not restraining us from them. Society projects the view of stereotypes in the media to represent the everyday life and the rights of the people into representations. Stereotypes reflect a particular nation or culture, therefore it play a significant role in  society.  As you know stereotypes is the main part of culture,  consequently we create our own stereotypes with feelings, and “it is the guarantee of our self-respect; it is the projection upon the world of our own sense of our own value, our own position and our own rights,” therefore making it necessary in everyday speech and the media. Although based on a small amount of truth, stereotypes are still necessary to help keep boundaries and categories within society.  The roles of stereotypes are represented as not only negative, but beneficial. Stereogypes are used to project society’s views as a culture and in the media to help organize and simplify society, and to convince society of a certain representation.

15) Identify the functions of stereotypes in culture. The functions of the stereotypes

Stereotypes are sensory-colored images which accumulating the social and psychological experience of communication and interactions of the individuals.

Stereotypes have the huge number of features: integrity, value coloring, steadiness, conservatism, emotionality, rationality and etc. The functions of stereotypes are the following: transfer of relatively reliable information; orientating function; influence at the creation of reality. Stereotypization allows to give the value comparison of the foreign and your own group and in this way to protect the traditions, views, values of the own group. In connection with this the stereotypes are some kind of protective mechanism which is serving for saving of positive identity of the own cultural group. Ethnical stereotypes are the ideas about the members of one ethnical groups from the point of view of the other. That’s why the stereotypes are projected, generally, at the big social groups. The personal experience of communication with the representatives of the foreign culture, as a rule, doesn’t lead to the correction of stereotype, even in that case if the declination from already existing idea is obvious. In such circumstances our experience is interpreted as an exception and existing stereotype is continuing to be considered as a norm.

16) Evaluate the notional component of the conceptIn present-day linguistics the notion of concept is one of the most widely used and controversial.

At the beginning the term “concept” was used as a generalized word-nominator, which in the process of thinking replaces an uncertain set of objects, actions, cognitive functions of the same kind.

D.S. Likhachov used this term to refer to the generalized cognitive unit, which reflects and interprets the phenomena of reality, depending on education, personal experience, professional and social experience of a native speaker.

In the Brief Dictionary of Cognitive Terms the concepts is defined as “operational meaningful unit of memory, mental lexicon, conceptual system, brain language, and the whole picture of the world reflected in the human mind

Being an idealized mental image, the concept has a high degree of abstraction, which is a priori predetermined by its dual nature. The concept is a unit of cognitive level; therefore, it absorbs everything that comes from “the world of mind” and is reflected in the meaning. However, the concept is also a phenomenon of culture; it accumulates its heritage: the original form (etymology), axiological evaluation, associations, abstractions, mental isoglosses, etc. This dual nature of the concept points to the difficulty in reaching the consensus on the number of semantic parameters that can be worked out for its examination.

Presumably the word-nominator is the means of verbalization of the concept. Acting as discrete units, concepts condense the human knowledge and experience, which is verbalized and stored in the national memory. They accumulate not only individual skills and experience but also knowledge that is shared by the linguistic community as a whole.

17) Comment on the difference between artifact and stereotype Identify different types of stereotypes

Artifact — (lat. artefactum arte – is artificial + factus – made) in the usual sense - any artificially created object, a product of human activities. In culture studies – the carrier of welfare information, vital and semantic values, a means of communication. Any artificially made object, a culture subject in three main spheres of its entity: material, spiritual culture and human relations. In culture any artificially created object having both certain physical characteristics, and sign or symbolical content.

stereotype is a thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things. These thoughts or beliefs may or may not accurately reflect reality.

(не совсем то. На ваше усмотрение) There are many ways how cultural artifacts constitute stereotypes of racial identity. We associate stereotypes with cultural artifacts all of the time. In fact, that is exactly how a stereotype is made. Stereotypes are basically myths that we as people make of how a certain group of people are expected to act or look like. Cultural artifacts are used in stereotypes to strengthen a stereotype or and to associate a group with a certain artifact that they use all of the time or that they are affiliated with.For example, we as people constructed the stereotype of the gangster. The stereotype of the gangster is an African American man who is very masculine and wears very baggy clothing. The gangster is associated with drugs and crime and is also very violent. That stereotype would not be able to be constructed without all of those cultural artifacts. We associate the gangster with baggy clothing because they wear baggy clothing to hide their drugs and hold their guns and when we see a gangster we usually see them wearing baggy clothing. They also usually carry guns which is brought out by their criminal and violent side. They use the guns in gang fights and to rob stores. By no means are all of these assumptions accurate but that is what is seen in the stereotype.

18) Identify different types of stereotypes

There are a lot of stereotypes in people’s life. Now some of them:

Racial stereotypes 
Religious stereotypes 
Ethnic stereotypes 
National stereotypes 
"Gender" stereotypes (including ones based on sex and on sexual orientation) 
Age stereotypes 
Physical stereotypes (those based on weight, height, hair color, etc.) 
Disability stereotypes (physical or mental) 
Professional stereotypes (based on jobs--e.g., plumbers, dentists, etc.) 
Cultural stereotypes (based on subculture--e.g., goths, emo kids, preps, etc.) 
For example: all blondes are dumb, or all black people have low IQ's, deal drugs, and excel in sports, or all hispanics are illegal aliens, or people who wear glasses are smarter, or all Texans live on cattle ranches and have oil wells and live like JR on "Dallas", or everyone in Louisiana has a gator in the backyard, or all Asians are smarter than other ethnic groups, or all fat people are jolly and have no self control. 

19)  НЕТУ   Evaluate  the role of borrowings in bearing connotative linguacultural meaning

20) Comment on the conceptual and national-linguistic world pictures

Conceptual picture of the world is the global image of the world which is result of all spiritual activity of the person.

National-linguistic picture of the world — historically developed in ordinary consciousness of specific language collective and the set of representations reflected in language about the world, a certain method of perception and a world arrangement, reality conceptualization. It is considered that to each natural language there corresponds a unique language picture of the world.

21) Clarify and comment on the components of world picture

World picture — the complicated-structured integrity including three main components — worldview, world perception and attitude. These components are integrated in a world picture specific to this era, ethnos or subculture in a way [2].

Worldview(that is sensual and figurative part) — is set of evident images of culture, the person, his place in the world, relations with the world and other people, etc.

World perception — the conceptual part provided by general categories of space, time, movement, etc. The basic large elements — a framework of a picture of the world — represent a set of the initial principles or the representations, fundamental assumptions about the world or those its parts which concern a situation. They can not be realized by the person, but are built in a world picture because are necessary for interpretation of any life situation, for determination of sense and for an assessment of that occurs. Some of them, such as movement, causality, intention, identity, equivalence, time and space, probably, even are based on congenital properties of the person [3]. Others, such as the good and evil, the relation to life and death, to itself in the world, to other people, etc., obviously are generated and accustom to education and development process.

The attitude represents a special warehouse of thinking, system of the categories or a special ratio of concepts.

Usually transition from one stage of social development to another is accompanied by sharp change or a fragile public picture of the world. The new worldview creates new world perception and attitude eventually — a new picture of the world.

22) Define the notion of concept in cognitive linguistics and linguacultural stuies

In modern cognitive linguistics pivotal notion is a notion of a concept which as the term is even more often used by the researchers dealing with problems of linguistic representation of cognitions. In the most general view a concept, according to Yu.S. Stepanov, it is possible to provide, on the one hand, as a culture clot in consciousness of the person: in the form of what the culture enters the mental world of the person, and, on the other hand, the concept is by means of what a man himself enters culture, and in certain cases influences it.

Concepts - the cogitative images standing behind language signs, in the last time became as a subject of great attention of linguists. The notionof the concept which has come from a cognotive science, is important and necessary for studying of language and was cornerstone of cognitive linguistics. The semantic space of specific language is constituted from concepts, and on semantic space it is possible to judge structures of knowledge in their specific and national refraction

In present-day linguistics the notion of concept is one of the most widely used and controversial.

The point is that the concept is the category of thinking, it is an aspect of thought and it gives plenty of room for its interpretation.

Today the category of concept appears in the studies of philosophers, logicians, psychologists, and it bears traces of all these extra linguistic explanations

23) Clarify and comment on cultural concept as the basic unit of linguacultural studies

Linguo-cultural concept as a subject of study of linguo-culture appears to the researchers as a cultural, mental and linguistic education. Linguo-cultural concept is a mental unit, aimed at a comprehensive study of language, consciousness and culture. Linguo-cultural concept differs from other units I its mental nature.
Cultural concept - it is a point of intersection between the world of culture and the world of the individual meanings. Cultural concepts are unique cultural genes belonging to genotype culture. Of particular interest for linguistics is an attempt to highlight the cultural component of the ethno-cultural concept. It is believed that even universal , human , concepts in different languages ​​verbalized specific (depending on the linguistic, pragmatic and cultural factors). Here the emphasis is on the fact that cultural concepts are organized in etnomarkirovannye associative semantic network.  concept - an ideal object , which is represented in our mind certain linguistic sign . This, in fact , the entire body is built and linguistics : reality itself is not given to us in direct perception , and linguistic thinking through language .
Cultural concept formed in the process of development of national consciousness and national language, and the process of formation is extremely important , on the one hand, for the understanding of the content of the concept, and on the other - to describe the features of the language as a whole.

24) Define the notion of linguistic personality

First of all, under "the language personality" is understood the person as the native speaker taken from its capability to speech activities, i.e. a complex of psychophysical properties of the individual, allowing him/her to make and perceive speech works - in essence the personality speech. Under "The language personality" is also understood set of features of verbal behavior of the person using language as a means of communication, - the communicative personality . And, at last, the basic national and cultural prototype of the carrier of a certain language fixed mainly in lexical system can be understood as "the language personality", some kind of "a semantic identikit", constituted on the basis of worldview arrangements, valuable priorities and the behavioural reactions reflected in the dictionary - the personality dictionary, ethnosemantic.

25.   Comment on the national and individual world picture

Picture of the world can be defined as the system of images (and links between them) – visual representations of the world, information about the relationship between man and reality, visual, and auditory, tactile and olfactory, images and information that are most often emotional. Picture of the world can be national of individual. National picture of the world represents specific features and characters of different nations.  Linguistic picture of the world can be also individual. Thus, the worldview of each person arises in picture of the world: "Every civilization, social system characterized by its own particular way of perceiving the world. (A. Gurevich). (A. Gurevich). It follows that the mentality of any linguistic-cultural community is due largely to picture of the world, which represent the world view. 

26.   Comment on the interrelation of conceptual, national and individual world pictures

worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the entirety of the individual or society's knowledge and point-of-view. 

That is why we should differentiate national and linguistic pictures of the world and also conceptual. All of them influence the perception of the world.

  1.  Conceptual pictures of the world of different people are the same,

  because the human mind is equal. The national language pictures of the world - just another of their "colorization." 

conceptual, national and individual world pictures are interrelated and interconnected with each other. One influences another. Individual worldview forms national picture of the world of one nation, a nd both of them are reflected in the conceptual thinking.

27.   Define the notion of  linguacultural analysis of  language entities

  1.  Linguistic anthropologists use traditional ethnographic methods such as participant-observation and work with native speakers to obtain local interpretive glosses of the communicative material they record. They also use elicitation techniques similar to those employed by typological linguists interested in grammatical patterns. Recently, these methods have been integrated with new forms of documentation of verbal practices developed in such fields as urban sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, and conversation analysis. The advent of new technologies for the electronic recording of sounds and actions has broadened the range of phenomena that can be studied

Such studies like ethnography and linguistic anthropology help linguacultural analysis to investigate language entities. Participant-observation and interviews are used by researches to study other cultures.  Studying other cultures makes clear that, at many levels, the ways of making sense of the world employed can be quite different

These differences operate at a variety of levels, from the more superficial, to those which challenge our very foundations for thinking about what reality is and how it works.

28.   Comment on the borrowings as a subject of linguistic analysis

Borrowing (in language), the reproduction by the phonetic and morphological means of one language of the morphemes, words, and phrases of another language. Vocabulary is more frequently susceptible to borrowing than are the other levels of language.

The causes of the appearance of lexical borrowings in the world’s languages are connected with the borrowing of new objects(traktor, tank, and kombain) or concepts (respublika or ekzamen), with the duplication of words already in the language for the use of international terminology (import and eksport along with Russian vvoz and vyvoz), with the attempt to isolate a certain shade of meaning (shkola and studiia [“school” and “studio,” respectively];prisposobliat’ and aranzhirovat’ [“to adjust” and “to arrange,” respectively]), and with the influence of fashion (viktoriia instead of pobeda [“victory”] and polites instead of vezhlivost’[“politeness”] in 18th-century Russian). 

Due to the causes of the formation of the borrowings it is clear that borrowings also should be investigated from the point of view of linguistic analysis. That is why borrowings are the subject of the linguistic analysis.

29.   Clarify the linguacultural aspect of phraseology

Lingua-cultural aspect of phraseology

  1.  Phraseology is a branch of linguistics which studies different types of set expressions or idioms.
  2.  Set expressions or idioms are non-motivated or partially motivated word groups that cannot be freely made up in speech, but are reproduced as ready-made units.
  3.  e.g. to carry coals to New Castle; to have one’s heart in one’s boots; from head to toe etc.

Structural criterion

The structural invariability of phraseological units:

  1.  no (or rather limited) substitutions of components: E.g. to carry coals to Manchester - Cf. The cargo ship is carrying coal to Manchester.
  2.  restrictions on the componential extension of phraseological units: E.g. he is having his heart in his brown (or black) boots.
  3.  grammatical invariability:  e.g. from head to feet.

 Semantic criterion

The meaning in phraseological units:

  1.  is created by mutual interaction of elements
  2.  conveys a single concept
  3.  the actual meaning is transferred and opposed to the literal meaning of a word-combination from which it is derived.
  4.  Phraseological units possess semantic unity. E.g.  to have a bee in one’s bonnet (‘to have an obsession about something, to be eccentric or even a little mad’).
  5.  The degree of transference may vary: E.g. to skate on thin ice (‘to take risks’); the small hours (‘the early hours in the morning’).

The meaning in a word-group:

  1.   is based on the combined meaning of the words constituting its structure.
  2.  Each element has a much greater semantic independence and stands for a separate concept, e.g. to cut bread, to cut cheese, to eat bread, etc.
  3.  The semantic unity makes phraseological units similar to words.

Levels of manifestation of cultural peculiarities:

  1.  The first level is closely associated with phraseological units having no phraseological counterparts in another language (other languages). This phenomenon may be explained by the selective properties of phraseological nomination of peoples speaking different languages. At the same time concepts revealing the meaning of PUs having no counterparts in other languages exist in the “Linguistic picture” of the nation. That’s why the meaning of such units is expressed in another language by means of lexical units or word combinations. Such phraseological units are translated with the help of separate lexemes or a set of lexemes (lexical way of translation), descriptive translation, or word for word translation when the image of the original PU is understandable in the receiving language.
  2.  Phraseological units of the second level are presented by a rather small group of units, the components of which present some national realities. National peculiarity marking is created by the presence of words specific of the definite nation. These words are either some reality definitions known only to the bearers of one or several nations connected by joint culture and religion or topographical, anthropological and hydrological names typical only of the definite country [Selifonova 2002].

30.   Identify metaphor as a means of cultural representation

  1.  Metaphor is an implied comparison between one entity or event and another based on their sharing certain referential attributes. Metaphors highlight features of similarity between different entities. 

1. Most of our concepts are abstract-concepts like TIME, EMOTIONS, COMMUNICATION, THE MIND, IDEAS…

2. …Abstract concepts are defined metaphorically in more concrete…terms-concepts like SPACE,

MOTION, FOOD, OBJECTS, etc.

3. However, no single, concrete, non-metaphorical concept is ever structured in exactly the right way to completely…define any single abstract concept.

4. As a result…each metaphor defines only certain aspects of an abstract concept.

  1.  Metaphors are very powerful and natural cognitive processes, which help us to understand the complex issues in nature and society.  

Metaphors can be described as mediators between the human mind and culture.

31.   Identify and comment on the types of metaphor


Types of metaphor

 

Metaphors can be classified in a range of different ways, based on various criteria, from complexity to level of usage.

  1.  Absolute metaphor: Separated subject and vehicle.

Ex:

I am the dog end of every day.

That is worth less than a dead digeridoo.

We faced a scallywag of tasks.

  1.  Active metaphor: New and not established.

Ex:

Let me compare thee to an artic day, sharp and bright, forever light...

It's been a purple dinosaur of a day.

You're looking pretty rabbit -- what's up?

'Metrosexual' is a modern word for an urban heterosexual male who is overly concerned with appearance.

  1.  Complex metaphor: Multi-layered.

Ex:

That lends weight to the argument.

They stood alone, frozen statues on the plain.

The ball happily danced into the net.

  1.  Compound metaphor: With many parts.

Ex:

She danced, a wild and gothic fairy.

Thick, primal, blind fog descended before his eyes.

The car screeched in hated anguish, its flesh laid bare in the raucous collision.

  1.  Dead metaphor: Normal language, no longer recognized as metaphor.

Ex:

Fabulous was something worthy of fable. Like many other superlatives, it has lost its original edge and now just means 'good'.

Money was so called because it was first minted at the temple Juno Moneta.

The origin of 'the whole nine yards' seems unknown, even to an expert word website.

  1.  Dormant metaphor: Weak connection between vehicle and subject.

Ex:

I was lost in thought. [How?]

She flew at him. [Why? In anger? Love?]

He was rattled. [Why? By what or whom?]

  1.  Dying metaphor: Unfashionable cliché.

Ex:

New era business is a whole different ball game.

The President has his hand firmly on the tiller of government and it is now plain sailing.

Thanks -- that's just the ticket, old chap. I'm over the moon about it.

  1.  Extended metaphor: One subject, many sub-elements.

Ex:

He is the pointing gun, we are the bullets of his desire.

All the world's a stage and men and women merely players.

Let me count my loves of thee, my rose garden, my heart, my fixed mark, my beginning and my end.

  1.  Implicit metaphor: Incomplete description.

Ex:

Roasting today! 

She had the screaming.

We were drinking the white.

  1.  Mixed metaphor: Mismatched combination of metaphors.

Ex:

He's a loose cannon who always goes off the deep end.

Footloose and fancy-pants.

He often shot his mouth off in the dark.

A rolling stone gathers no bird in the hand.

It was playing with fire in the belly.

  1.  Pataphor: Extreme form of metaphor.

Ex:

Panting hard, he hand-braked the corner, power-sliding into the doorway. [running as driving]

  1.  Root metaphor: Unrealized basic driver.

Ex:

Winning the argument. (argument as war)

Time is money.

Life as journey.

  1.  Simple metaphor: Single meaning and linkage.

Ex:

Cool down! [Cool = temperature]

He was mad. [mad = anger]

I'll chew on it. [chew = think]

  1.  Submerged metaphor: Use a part as a metaphor for something else.

Ex:

Her thoughts were on the wing. [wing > bird > flight]

He legged it. [Leg > human > run]

  1.  Synechdochic metaphor: Use a part as metaphor for the whole.

Ex:

I like your wheels, man! [wheels = car]

Nice bit of skirt. [skirt = woman]

Try this nib. [nib = pen]

32.   Symbols as a stereotypical cultural phenomenon

  1.  A symbol is a sign which has further layers of meaning. In other words, a symbol means more than it literally says. (Signs are literal; symbols are not).

Notice that a symbol can have more than one layer of further meaning. The more profound the symbol, the greater the complexity of the layers of meaning (although the symbol itself may be quite simple).

Symbols can have three kinds of association; often a symbol will have all three. The associations are:

  1.  Personal: We all have associations with things in our experience. One person may have strong affection for dogs while another person may fear them intensely.
  2.  Cultural: Different symbols may have quite different meanings in different cultures. In Chinese culture, dogs represent devotion and faithfulness; in Islamic culture, they represent impurity.
  3.  Universal: some symbols have universal meaning. Lions suggest deity in a variety of cultures, for instance. Trying to discern and express the universal meaning of a symbol is tricky.

A poem or a story can mean more than the writer consciously intended. It can have this surplus of meaning because of the way language works. Many images ("signs") in a work of literature will have personal, cultural, and universal associations for both reader and writer.

Neither writer nor reader is in control of these associations. We acquire the associations all through our life, and usually without being aware that we are acquiring them. When we speak, write, read, dream, or engage in any symbolic activity, these meanings are there naturally and unavoidably.

Thus, while a writer may intend to express certain meanings, the meaning he or she expresses will exceed what was consciously intended. Literature is rich and has lasting value because of its surplus meaning, the many layers of meaning it can convey to varied readers.

33.   Define simile in linguacultural aspect

Of all figures of speech, simile is said to be the simplest and the most common used. Simile is utilized popularly in numerous languages and linguistic fields. There are a variety of ways to define simile, the briefest of all may be that “Simile is a comparison of one thing with another.”  and “A simile is a comparison between two essentially unlike items on the basis of a shared quality; similes are produced by like or as”.

The objectives compared in a simile do not usually belong to the same semantic groups or classes. A person can be compared to an animal or a thing. By way of illustration, in the simile “He was as cunning as a fox” a man’s characteristic is compared with a fox’s one. Another similar example is “He swims like a fish”. Actually, a fish is so good at swimming. The action of “swimming” of a man is compared with that of a fish. That is to say he swims very well.

In short, similes and metaphors include three basic elements. They are: 1. TOPIC: the topic of the first proposition (non - figurative), i.e., the thing really being talked about. 2. IMAGE: the topic of the second proposition (figurative), i.e., what is being compared with 3. POINT OF SIMILARITY: this is found in the comments of the two propositions involved. To sum up, it is advisable to write out the propositions, which are basic to comparisons. That the topic, image, point of similarity have been identified is helpful to interpret simile and metaphor.

34.   Metaphor as the way of cultural phenomenon. A metaphor is a figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object. "A cultural metaphor is any activity, phenomenon, or institution with which members of a given culture emotionally and/or cognitively identify.  As such, the metaphor represents the underlying values expressive of the culture itself.  Frequently, outsiders have a difficult time relating to and/or understanding the underlying values of a culture, and this book is designed to address this difficulty.  Culture allows us to fill in the blanks, often unconsciously, when action is required, and cultural metaphors help us to see the values leading to action.  This is probably the most interesting feature of culture."

35.   Symbol as a cultural phenomenon. As people use symbols when they commincate, the use of symbols is essential for social interaction and hence the organization of society. The study of symbols is also of fundamental importance for the interpretation and understanding of various cultural phenomena.Symbols and symbol use is an important area of social anthropological research. In a broad sense, a symbol can be understood as a sign that in a meaningful way stands for something other than itself.Through studying the use of symbols social anthropologists can gain an insight into how people orient themselves in the world they live in and of the images they form of it. Thus, a focus on symbols is also necessary in order to study different world views and the ritual activities associated with them.

36.   Clarify the linguacultural aspect of phraseology. An idiom most often reflects the national specificity of the people. It is a figurative interpretation of reality and an emotional model of communication. Idioms are highly interactive items.  They are strong and colorful examples of cross-cultural relations. The source of their origin is sometimes difficult to ascertain. They are firmly assimilated in various languages and have become part and the whole of these cultures. The main difficulty is whether an idiom is appropriate in the given context when a non-native speaker tries to translate an idiom from his native language into English. It may confuse a listener.  The problem is often one of collocation, which is a central characteristic of the language in use. The way native speakers use English in the real world is largely idiomatic and it assumes that a fluent non-native speaker should be similarly idiomatic. \The Lingua-cultural approach of teaching idioms broadens cultural awareness of students; they learn not only language but the traditions and customs of the English people, they become more tolerant of other cultures, they start to respect other people’s beliefs through the prism of lingua-cultural heritage.\The Lingua-cultural method includes two aspects of communication - language and cross-cultural. People should be  bi-cultural easily guided in national features, history, culture, customs of two countries, civilizations, the inner worlds.\Statistical methods indicators confirm that the modern world constantly speaks with metaphors including idioms. That is proved by their extensive use in oral or written communications. Consequently, nowadays, new epochal challenges and powerful cultural expansion, raise the importance of learning foreign languages for communicative purposes.  Scientists believe that the most important data is the study of “phraseological language” (L. Buckingham) of different cultures in order to determine their diverse functions in different culture

37.   Comment on the types of metaphor. Metaphors can be classified in a range of different ways, based on various criteria, from complexity to level of usage.

  1.  Absolute metaphor: Separated subject and vehicle.
  2.  Active metaphor: New and not established.
  3.  Complex metaphor: Multi-layered.
  4.  Compound metaphor: With many parts.
  5.  Dead metaphor: Normal language, no longer recognized as metaphor.
  6.  Dormant metaphor: Weak connection between vehicle and subject.
  7.  Dying metaphor: Unfashionable cliché.
  8.  Extended metaphor: One subject, many sub-elements.
  9.  Implicit metaphor: Incomplete description.
  10.  Mixed metaphor: Mismatched combination of metaphors.
  11.  Pataphor: Extreme form of metaphor.
  12.  Root metaphor: Unrealized basic driver.
  13.  Simple metaphor: Single meaning and linkage.
  14.  Submerged metaphor: Use a part as a metaphor for something else.
  15.  Synechdochic metaphor: Use a part as metaphor for the whole.

Dead metaphor:A metaphor that has lost its force and meaning through overuse.  Examples: world wide web, flowerbed, fishing for compliments, windfall.

Burlesque:A figurative metaphor that the comparison is the grotesque, comic or the exaggerated.Example: "It was a very black night and the girl was dressed in cream-coloured muslin, and must have glimmered under the tall trees of the dark park like a phosphorescent fish in a cupboard." (Ford Maddox Ford, The Good Soldier, 1915). Primary:  A metaphor that is immediately understood. Examples: knowing is seeing, time is motion. 

Complex:A metaphor where the literal meaning is expressed through more than one figurative term or primary terms. Examples: lose our cool, anger welling-up inside, person flaring up, and outburst of anger. Conceptual:  A metaphor where one idea or concept is understood as another. Example: Time is money. 

Conduit:

A type of conceptual metaphor, used in English to talk about the process of communication. 

38.   Clarify simile as a cultural phenomenon. A common figure of speech that explicitly compares two things usually considered different. Most similes are introduced by like or as: “The realization hit me like a bucket of cold water.” (Comparemetaphor.)Some similes, such as “sleeping like a log,” have become clichés.

39.   Define simile in linguacultural aspect. Of all figures of speech, simile is said to be the simplest and the most common used. Simile is utilized popularly in numerous

languages and linguistic fields. There are a variety of ways to define simile, the briefest of all may be attributed to C.

Jonathan (1995) in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary “Simile is a comparison of one thing with another.” Kirssner and

Mandell (1987) mention in The Brief Holt Handbook, however, give a more specific definition: “A simile is a comparison

between two essentially unlike items on the basis of a shared quality; similes are produced by like or as”.

The objectives compared in a simile do not usually belong to the same semantic groups or classes. A person can be compared to an animal or a thing. By way of illustration, in the simile “He was as cunning as a fox” a man’s characteristic is compared with a fox’s one. Another similar example is “He swims like a fish”. Actually, a fish is so good at swimming. The action of “swimming” of a man is compared with that of a fish. That is to say he swims very well. Let us consider another example, “He was like a bull in a china shop, treading on everyone’s feet and apologize constantly.” In this case, only the topic “He” and the image of the simile “a bull in a china shop” are given out. The point of similarity, however, is implicit. To analyze this simile, we can state the two propositions explicitly as follows: 1. He is extremely careless and clumsy. 2. A bull in a china shop is extremely careless and clumsy. Subsequently, the implicit information becomes apparent.

40.   Define the concept of authenticity. The concept of authenticity -- the idea of `being oneself' or being `true to oneself' -- is central tomodern moral thought. The concept of authenticity has been explored throughout history by many writers, from ancient Greek philosophers to Enlightenment authors, to existentialists and contemporary social theorists. The social barrier to achieving authenticity (or self-realization) was emphasized by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78), who argued that personal authenticity is diminished by the need for the esteem of others in societies characterized by hierarchy, inequality, and interdependence. According to Rousseau, authenticity is derived from the natural self, whereas inauthenticity is a result of external influences.\The existential philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) said that authenticity is choosing the nature of one’s existence and identity. He also linked authenticity to an awareness of mortality, since only by keeping in mind one’s inevitable death can one lead a truly authentic life. His project of realizing one’s identity in the context of an external world with its influences, implies a complex relationship between authenticity and inauthenticity which means that they should be viewed not as mutually exclusive concepts, but as complementary and interdependent. Heidegger argued that both authenticity and inauthenticity are basic forms of being in the world, and they cannot be separated.

41.   Identify the notion of  ethnography. The term ethnography has come to be equated with virtually any qualitative research project (e.g., see Research Gateway) where the intent is to provide a detailed, in-depth description of everyday life and practice. This is sometimes referred to as "thick description" -- a term attributed to the anthropologist Clifford Geertz writing on the idea of an interpretive theory of culture in the early 1970s (e.g., see The Interpretation of Cultures, first published as a collection in 1973).  The use of the term "qualitative" is meant to distinguish this kind of social science research from more "quantitative" or statistically oriented research. The two approaches, i.e., quantitative and qualitative, while often complementary, ultimately have different aims.While an ethnographic approach to social research is no longer purely that of the cultural anthropologist, a more precise definition must be rooted in ethnography's disciplinary home of anthropology. Thus, ethnography may be defined as both a qualitative research process or method (one conducts an ethnography) and product (the outcome of this process is an ethnography) whose aim is cultural interpretation. The ethnographer goes beyond reporting events and details of experience.  Specifically, he or see attempts to explain how these represent what we might call "webs of meaning" (Geertz again), the cultural constructions, in which we live.\Ethnographers generate understandings of culture through representation of what we call an emic perspective, or what might be described as the "'insider's point of view." The emphasis in this representation is thus on allowing critical categories and meanings to emerge from the ethnographic encounter rather than imposing these from existing models.  An etic perspective, by contrast, refers to a more distant, analytical orientation to experience.An ethnographic understanding is developed through close exploration of several sources of data. Using these data sources as a foundation, the ethnographer relies on a cultural frame of analysis.

42) Comment on the phraseological unit. Phraseological unit / set expression / idiom – a complex word-equivalent in which the globality of nomination reigns supreme over the formal separability of elements. It is reproduced in speech. –See Idiom proper. Sources of idioms:

1. from our everyday lifeEx.: to be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth

  1.  to sail under false colour (прятать истинное лицо)
  2.  to loose track of smb (потерять кого-либо из виду, давно не видеть)
  3.  a leopard can(’t) change its spots

2. from the Bible

  1.  Ex.: black sheep, lost sheep (заблудшая овца)
  2.  To cast pearls before swine (метать бисер перед свиньями)

3. World literature

  1.  Ex.: to fight against Windmills
  2.  an ugly duckling (Danish) – гадкий утенок

4. different languages

  1.  Ex.: to lose face (Chinese)
  2.  “The course of true love has never run smooth” Shakespeare “The 12th night”
  3.  “The course of true reforms has never run smooth in Russia” – “the Times”

5. from history

  1.  Ex.: to cross the Rubicon
  2.  Labours of Hercules
  3.  To bell the cat

43) Identify the Linguocultural aspect of phraseology. Phraseology is the study of set or fixed expressions, such as idiomsphrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes), in which the component parts of the expression take on a meaning more specific than or otherwise not predictable from the sum of their meanings when used independently. For example, ‘Dutch auction’ is composed of the words Dutch ‘of or pertaining to the Netherlands’ and auction ‘a public sale in which goods are sold to the highest bidder’, but its meaning is not ‘a sale in the Netherlands where goods are sold to the highest bidder’. Instead, the phrase has a conventionalized meaning referring to any auction where, instead of rising, the prices fall.

44) Clarify the pragmatic aspects of authentic texts as the source of linguo-cultural competence formation. The use of 'authentic texts' has been one of the most important criteria acknowledged by writers of textbooks for foreign language teaching. In recent years, many scholars in language education have questioned conventional beliefs in 'authenticity'. Some claim that the concept of authenticity is an 'illusion' for classroom teaching. On the basis of the review, it looks at authenticity from a perspective that takes intercultural communicative competence as a point of departure. In this connection, it addresses four fundamental issues of authenticity for textbook writing in countries where English is taught as a foreign or second language, namely mutual representations, intention and interpretation, diachrony and synchrony and principles of contrivance. To illustrate the perspective, the paper will then examines the influence of the concept of authenticity on ELT textbook writing in China as represented in recent literature about College English teaching. College English, the most widely-used ELT textbook series, is used as the focus of analysis in broad terms in accordance with the four dimensions identified.\The issue of authenticity in language teaching materials is one with a substantial history and development. Proponents of using authentic materials, defined as the 'real' language created by native speakers of that language in pursuit of communicative outcomes (Little, Devitt, & Singleton, 1989), believe that the stamp of using authentic materials in foreign language education ensures a direct relationship to educational objectives. The enthusiasm for using authentic materials in foreign language textbooks has become intensified with the increasing popularity of the communicative orientation to language teaching in the last few decades because, from the communicative language teaching perspective, students need to constantly refer to the contextually appropriate ways native speakers actually put the target language in use. In response to this orientation, many English language textbooks have been written, particularly in the 1980s, with the claim of using authentic materials (for examples, Abbs and Freebairn, 1980; Grellet, 1981; Walter, 1982; Cook, 1983; Forrester, 1984; Ellis and Ellis 1987 and Schinke-Llano, 1989). There have also been studies into the methodology and effects of using authentic texts on EFL/ESL learners. ELT professionals (e.g. Morton, 1999; Peacock, 1997; Morrison, 1989; Swaffar, 1985 and Zhu, 1984) have experimented with practical methods to teach English courses with authentic texts of various types and levels and they show overall positive outcomes both with respect to motivating learners in learning the target language and in terms of developing in them communicative competence.

45)  Identify the pragmatic aspects of authentic texts. The use of 'authentic texts' has been one of the most important criteria acknowledged by writers of textbooks for foreign language teaching. In recent years, many scholars in language education have questioned conventional beliefs in 'authenticity'. Some claim that the concept of authenticity is an 'illusion' for classroom teaching. On the basis of the review, it looks at authenticity from a perspective that takes intercultural communicative competence as a point of departure. In this connection, it addresses four fundamental issues of authenticity for textbook writing in countries where English is taught as a foreign or second language, namely mutual representations, intention and interpretation, diachrony and synchrony and principles of contrivance. To illustrate the perspective, the paper will then examines the influence of the concept of authenticity on ELT textbook writing in China as represented in recent literature about College English teaching. College English, the most widely-used ELT textbook series, is used as the focus of analysis in broad terms in accordance with the four dimensions identified.\The issue of authenticity in language teaching materials is one with a substantial history and development. Proponents of using authentic materials, defined as the 'real' language created by native speakers of that language in pursuit of communicative outcomes (Little, Devitt, & Singleton, 1989), believe that the stamp of using authentic materials in foreign language education ensures a direct relationship to educational objectives. The enthusiasm for using authentic materials in foreign language textbooks has become intensified with the increasing popularity of the communicative orientation to language teaching in the last few decades because, from the communicative language teaching perspective, students need to constantly refer to the contextually appropriate ways native speakers actually put the target language in use. In response to this orientation, many English language textbooks have been written, particularly in the 1980s, with the claim of using authentic materials (for examples, Abbs and Freebairn, 1980; Grellet, 1981; Walter, 1982; Cook, 1983; Forrester, 1984; Ellis and Ellis 1987 and Schinke-Llano, 1989). There have also been studies into the methodology and effects of using authentic texts on EFL/ESL learners. ELT professionals (e.g. Morton, 1999; Peacock, 1997; Morrison, 1989; Swaffar, 1985 and Zhu, 1984) have experimented with practical methods to teach English courses with authentic texts of various types and levels and they show overall positive outcomes both with respect to motivating learners in learning the target language and in terms of developing in them communicative competence.

46) .   Identify means of nonverbal communication. Interpersonal communication not only involves the explicit meaning of words, the information or message conveyed, but also refers to implicit messages, whether intentional or not, which are expressed through non-verbal behaviours.Non-verbal communications include facial expressions, the tone and pitch of the voice, gestures displayed through body language (kinesics) and the physical distance between the communicators (proxemics). These non-verbal signals can give clues and additional information and meaning over and above spoken (verbal) communication.Non-verbal Messages Allow People To:Reinforce or modify what is said in words. For example, people may nod their heads vigorously when saying "Yes" to emphasise that they agree with the other person, but a shrug of the shoulders and a sad expression when saying "I'm fine thanks,” may imply that things are not really fine at all!

Convey information about their emotional state.

Define or reinforce the relationship between people.

Provide feedback to the other person.

Regulate the flow of communication, for example by signalling to others that they have finished speaking or wish to say something..The types of interpersonal communication that are not expressed verbally are called non-verbal communications. These include:Body Movements (Kinesics),Posture,Eye Contact,Para-language,Closeness or Personal Space (Proxemics),Facial Expressions,Physiological Changes.

47)  Define the linguistic anthropology. Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life. It is a branch of anthropology that originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages, and has grown over the past 100 years to encompass almost any aspect of language structure and use. Linguistic anthropology explores how language shapes communication, forms social identity and group membership, organizes large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and develops a common cultural representation of natural and social worlds. Language is part of what makes us human. Linguistic anthropologists study language, and how language is used in order to understand culture. Linguistic anthropologists are interested in how many languages there are, how those languages are distributed across the world, and their contemporary and historical relationships. We are also interested in language variation, why variations exist, how the variations are used (i.e., do you say ‘tomAto’ or ‘tomahto’?!), and what they mean when they are used in various contexts. Our specializations at CSULB include language and education, language socialization, language and gender, language in medical settings, language and policy, language loss, maintenance, and revitalization. Increasingly, linguistic anthropologists are in the forefront of these fields providing essential information for program development, policy formation, and practical solutions to everyday language and cultural issues. There are many opportunities for students to become involved with linguistic anthropological research in local and international contexts through CSULB.

48) Define the notion of  linguaconcept Linguo-cultural concept as a subject of study of linguo-culture appears to the researchers as a cultural, mental and linguistic education.

The linguo- cultural concept differs from other units in its mental nature. Mentality is perceived as a guided collection of images and perceptions. Linguo-cultural concept differs from other mental units by the presence of the value component. Value is always in the centre of the concept.

A linguo-concept consists of distinguish evaluative, figurative and conceptual components. Notional component of the concept is stored in the verbal form. A figurative component isnon-verbal and can be described or interpreted at most.

Concept includes such semiotics categories as the image, the notion and meaning in the reduced form, as a kind of „hyperonym” (generic ter m) and is characterized as heterogeneous and multi-featured. The concept acquired the discursive meaning representation from the notion, from the image it appropriated metaphor and emotiveness, and from the meaning it acquired the inclusion of the name (concept).

49) Comment on the phraseological picture of the world. National specific features of phraseological units may reflect the history of the nation, its original traditions and customs, its character primordially laid in PU prototypes. Let’s take as an example three Russian phraseological units.\The stable unit  “во всю ивановскую” – 1. “very loudly (cry, snore, etc.); 2. “very quickly, using all one’s force” is derived from the expression “звонить во всю ивановскую” – with the etymology “in all the bells of Ivan the Great bell tower in Moscow Kremlin” and “кричать во всю ивановскую” – “from the name of Ivan’s square in Moscow Kremlin where tsar’s edicts were formerly announced”[PDRL 1967:177].    \ Phraseological units in both languages may have the same meaning but be based on different images of highly national character. The typical example of such kind of expressions is the units “ездить в Тулу со своим самоваром” and “carry coals to Newcastle” with specific topographical denominators.\We can’t overstate the role of national peculiarities in the phraseological picture of the world [Maslova 2001]. There are a lot of international phraseological units and expressions based on the knowledge of the real world common to all mankind in the phraseological systems of the Russian and English languages. The differences in PU images can be explained by the lack of coincidence of the technique of secondary nomination in different languages rather than by their cultural peculiarities.

50)

2. Типовая задача

  1.  The discipline that studies similarities and differences in language structures and culture of various ethnic groups is called … Linguaculture
  2.  Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society.
  3.  Ethnocentrism  is a basic attitude expressing the belief that one’s own ethnic group or one’s own culture is superior to other ethnic groups or cultures, and that one’s cultural standards can be applied in a universal manner.
  4.  A language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another languages is called  Endangered 
  5.  A language that is no longer spoken by anyone as a native language is called… Extinct
  6.  The coexistence of distinct varieties within a single language is called… Heteroglossia 
  7.  Culture is the total way of life of a people including the patterns of belief, customs, objects, institutions, techniques, and language that characterizes the life of the human community.
  8.  A real group of people who share something about the way in which they use language is called  Speech community
  9.  Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people.
  10.  The anthropocentric paradigm in  linguistics focuses on  the problems of correlation of language and a person on the on hand and of language and culture on the other hand. Also focuses on the studying of ethno-cultural specificity of language conceptualization of the world by human, personal and social sides of man, linguistic knowledge, verbal communication and human behavior and cognitive processes of storage, transmission and interpretation of knowledge and intellectual activity. anthropocentric paradigm displays on the first place the person, and language is the main constitutive characteristic of man, its most important component.
  11.  Social studies is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life
  12.  The principle of linguistic relativity is popularly known as  the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis or Whorfianism
  13.  Nonverbal communication … is a process of communication through sending and receiving wordless cues between people.
  14.  Ethnographic research usually involves…observing target users in their natural, real-world setting, rather than in the artificial environment of a lab or focus group. The aim is to gather insight into how people live; what they do; how they use things; or what they need in their everyday or professional lives.
  15.  Sapir-Whorf hypothesis claims that  the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes. Or in other words we may say that the structure of a language defines the way a person behaves and thinks, must surely have it wrong according to many cognitive scientists, including Noam Chomsky, Steven Pinker, and others. The principle is often defined as having two versions: - the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories; - the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behaviour.

16 …. Is any human aggregate characterized by regular and frequent interaction by means of a shared body of verbal signs and set off from similar aggregates by significant differences in language usage    speech community

17. ….is a specialized terminology that may spread from a narrow group (e.g., professional jargon) until used or understood by a wider auditory

18. … is a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations mentality 

19. ...is a popular belief about specific social groups or types of individuals. The concepts  and "prejudice" are often confused with many other different meanings. They  are standardized and simplified conceptions of groups based on some prior assumptions A stereotype

20. Combination of words in a language that happens very often and more frequently that would happen by chance , is…. A 'collocation'

21. ...is the study of fixed sets of words or “phrases.” Generally, efforts in phraseology are related to explaining the meanings and histories of these sets of words. Phraseology 

22 ...is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. This supports the theory that environmental influences dominate who we are instead of biologically inherited traits. Cultural determinism

23 Who says: “Socio pragmatic norms are not acquired through simple immersion, and that some form of explicit instruction is helpful”.

24 Who says: “An understanding of pragmatics is important, not only for people who settle in a country where the dominant language and culture is not their own but, by implication, for those who interpret for them”.

25 ...is- teaching a second language by relying heavily on the native language of the speaker. The theory is that maintaining a strong sense of one's one culture and language is necessary to acquire another language and culture. bilingual education

26 … is a simplified and often misleading representation of an ethnic group, composed of what are thought to be typical characteristics of members of a given ethnic group. Ethnic stereotype

27 … is the attitudes, opinions, beliefs or theories that we all have about language

28 … is a regionally or socially distinctive variety of a language, characterized by a particular set of words and grammatical structures. dialect:

29 A language historically derived from two or more languages in a context of cultural and linguistic contact is called… Mixed language

30 Ethnolinguistics sometimes is called … cultural linguistics)

31) A language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another languages is called endangered language.

32) Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society.

33) The phenomenon in which different dialects of a language or different languages are spoken by a person in different social situations is called diglossia.

34) is a  person with the cultural-linguistic and communicative activity-related values, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Linguistic personality

35) Symbol is Something that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention, especially a material object used to represent something invisible.

36) Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication between people who cannot make themselves understood by means of their different first language.

37) Sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) associated with a social group such as a socioeconomic class, an ethnic group (precisely termed ethnolect), an age group, etc.

38) is a language used by people in a multilingual setting as a means of enabling native speakers of disparate languages to communicate with each other Multicultural language

39) Multilingualism is the act of using polyglotism, or using multiple languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers. 

40) What does a linguo-concept consist of? Linguo-cultural concept as a subject of study of linguo-culture appears to the researchers as a cultural, mental and linguistic education.

The linguo- cultural concept differs from other units in its mental nature. Mentality is perceived as a guided collection of images and perceptions. Linguo-cultural concept differs from other mental units by the presence of the value component. Value is always in the centre of the concept.

A linguo-concept consists of distinguish evaluative, figurative and conceptual components. Notional component of the concept is stored in the verbal form. A figurative component isnon-verbal and can be described or interpreted at most.

Concept includes such semiotics categories as the image, the notion and meaning in the reduced form, as a kind of „hyperonym” (generic ter m) and is characterized as heterogeneous and multi-featured. The concept acquired the discursive meaning representation from the notion, from the image it appropriated metaphor and emotiveness, and from the meaning it acquired the inclusion of the name (concept).

41) Pragmalinguistics is combining knowledge of linguistics and civilization is a field under development within the realm of applied linguistics.

42) Cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the branch of linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its forms.

43) Linguistic relativity: Structural differences between languages are paralleled

by nonlinguistic cognitive differences (the structure of the language itself effects cognition).

44)

45) Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate.

46. Who are the authors of the book 'Metaphors we live by'?George Lacoff, Mark Johnson. The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"—metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them.
 

47. What do speech acts include?speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionaryillocutionary, and perlocutionary acts. Speech acts are commonly taken to include such acts as promising, ordering, greeting, warning, inviting and congratulating.

Speech acts can be analysed on three levels:

  1.  locutionary act, the performance of an utterance: the actual utterance and its ostensible meaning, comprising phonetic, phatic and rhetic acts corresponding to the verbal, syntactic and semantic aspects of any meaningful utterance;
  2.  an illocutionary act: the pragmatic 'illocutionary force' of the utterance, thus its intended significance as a socially valid verbal action (see below);
  3.  and in certain cases a further perlocutionary act: its actual effect, such as persuading, convincing, scaring, enlightening, inspiring, or otherwise getting someone to do or realize something, whether intended or not (Austin 19)

 

48. Analyze the structure of the concept “good”. Every language has the word good, which has the meaning

‘possessing the right quality and moral excellence’ (Britannica 2008). Good is a

broad concept but typically it is associated with life, continuity, happiness, prosperity and truth. The dichotomy of Good and evIl is inseparable. It is difficult to describe the concept of good without the opposition of bad or evil. Thus resting on this

dichotomy and depending on the context, good (and evil) may represent judgments,

norms, claims of absolute value related to human nature or to various standards.

According to the writer, editor and film maker Jobie Weetaluktuk, the Genesis

gives a description of the concept Good. Adam and Eve knew God and because of

that knowledge they knew what is good. In a monotheistic (one God, religious) contexts, the concept of God is derived as an infinite projection of love and goodness in

people’s lives. What is good and what is evil is determined for all humanity by God.

The concept of good apart from God is an illusion. God is the absolute concept of

‘good’. People cannot categorize God’s deeds into “good” and “bad”, but unambiguously, what God does is good. Thus God is the initial and absolute concept of good.

The good is light, love, life, heaven and positiveness (Weetaluktuk 2010). Goodness

is not something over and above what can be found in each good thing; it never exists apart from good things, it is merely a quality that can be found in each.

As a philosophical concept, Good might represent a hope that natural love can

be continuous, expansive, and all-inclusive. Theories of moral goodness are interes-32

Filologija 2011 (16)

ted in various sorts of things that are good, and in the abstract meaning of the word

good. In other contexts, good is whatever produces the best consequences upon the

people’s lives and their states of wellbeing (Britannica 2008).

49. Allocate the realia in the sentence “An emblem of Italian cuisine, spaghetti is frequently served with tomato sauce, which may contain various herbs, olive oil, meat, or vegetables”. Realias are real objects that exist in a given environment. According to the dictionary definitions, realia is a culture-specific word or phrase which is often difficult, if not impossible to translate into target language (Latin realis - actual, true, and material). Such words and set phrases that name these objects are called realias in linguistics and in theory of translation.

50. Allocate the realia in the sentence “Architecturally, the igloo is unique in that it is a house that can be raised out of independent blocks leaning on each other and polished to fit without an additional supporting structure during construction.”

51. Allocate the realia in the sentence “In 1941, Miss Phyllis Thompson became the first woman licensed to drive a double-decker in England.”

52. Allocate the realia in the sentence “In the United States, the relationship between the sheriff and other police departments varies widely from state to state, and indeed in some states from county to county.”

53. Allocate the realia in the sentence “Besbarmak is usually eaten with a boiled pasta sheet and a meat broth called shorpa, and is traditionally served in Kazakh bowls called kese.”

54. Allocate the realia in the sentence “The production of matryoshkas is done by highly skilled craftsmen who pass down their skills generation to generation.”

55. Means of nonverbal communication: 1. Facial Expression2. Gestures3. Paralinguistics

4. Body Language and Posture5. Proxemics6. Eye Gaze7. Haptics8. Appearance

Posture[edit]

There are many different types of body positioning to portray certain postures, including slouching, towering, legs spread, jaw thrust, shoulders forward, and arm crossing.

Clothing[edit]Clothing is one of the most common forms of non-verbal communication. The study of clothing and other objects as a means of non-verbal communication is known as artifactics[14] or objectics.

Gestures[edit]Gestures may be made with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of the head, face and eyes, such as winking, nodding, or rolling one's eyes. Although the study of gesture is still in its infancy, some broad categories of gestures have been identified by researchers. The most familiar are the so-called emblems or quotable gestures.

Facial expressions, more than anything, serve as a practical means of communication. With all the various muscles that precisely control mouth, lips, eyes, nose, forehead,and jaw, human faces are estimated to be capable of more than ten thousand different expressions. This versatility makes non-verbals of the face extremely efficient and honest, unless deliberately manipulated. In addition, many of these emotions, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, shame, anguish and interest are universally recognized.[19]

Gestures can be subdivided into three groups:

AdaptersSome hand movements are not considered to be gestures. They consist of manipulations either of the person or some object (e.g. clothing, pencils, eyeglasses) – the kinds of scratching, fidgeting, rubbing, tapping, and touching that people often do with their hands. Such behaviors are referred to as adapters. They may not be perceived as meaningfully related to the speech in which they accompany, but may serve as the basis for dispositional inferences of the speaker’s emotion (nervous, uncomfortable, bored.)[6]

Symbolic gesturesOther hand movements are considered to be gestures. They are movements with specific, conventionalized meanings called symbolic gestures. Familiar symbolic gestures include the “raised fist,” “bye-bye,” and “thumbs up.” In contrast to adapters, symbolic gestures are used intentionally and serve a clear communicative function. Every culture has their own set of gestures, some of which are unique only to a specific culture. Very similar gestures can have very different meanings across cultures. Symbolic gestures are usually used in the absence of speech, but can also accompany speech.[6]

Conversational gesturesThe middle ground between adapters and symbolic gestures is occupied by conversational gestures. These gestures do not refer to actions or words, but do accompany speech. Conversational gestures are hand movements that accompany speech, and are related to the speech they accompany. Though they do accompany speech, conversational gestures are not seen in the absence of speech and are only made by the person who is speaking.[6]

Eye contact[edit]Information about the relationship and affect of these two skaters is communicated by their body posture, eye gaze and physical contact.

Eye contact is the instance when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time; it is the primary nonverbal way of indicating engagement, interest, attention and involvement. Studies have found that people use their eyes to indicate interest. This includes frequently recognized actions of winking and movements of the eyebrows.[citation needed] Disinterest is highly noticeable when little or no eye contact is made a social setting. When an individual is interested however, the pupils will dilate.

 

56. Ethnographic research usually involves… observing target users in their natural, real-world setting, rather than in the artificial environment of a lab or focus group. The aim is to gather insight into how people live; what they do; how they use things; or what they need in their everyday or professional lives.

 

57. … is a speaker who uses a first language or mother tongue. Native speaker

58. … is the distinct form of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. A regional dialect 

59. … is a  person's native language--that is, a language learned from birth. first language (also native languagemother tongue

  1.  60. … is discrimination based on language or dialect: linguistically argued racism. Linguicism

61. Which components can be identified in the content of the language person? 

In the content of the language person usually included the following components:
1) values, worldview, a component of the content of education, ie system of values, or life meaning. Language provides an original and profound view of the world, forms the image of the world of language and hierarchy of spiritual concepts that lie at the basis of the formation of the national character and implemented in the course of language dialogue communication;
2) cultural studies component, ie, the level of development of culture as an effective means of increasing interest in the language. Bringing the target language culture facts related to the rules of speech and nonverbal behavior contributes to the development of skills and the adequate use of effective impact on the communication partner;
3) using the individual components, ie, a personalized, in-depth, that there is in every human being.

62. What are some nicknames that are known to you friends, classmates, politicians. What kind of culture is the phenomenon itself? 

A nickname is

  1.  A familiar, invented given name for a person or thing used instead of the actual name of the person or thing
  2.  A descriptive name for a place or thing
  3.  An alternate name someone uses, or others use, to refer to that person instead of using that person's real or complete name
  4.  The familiar form of company name (eg Bud for Budweiser, T-bird for Thunderbird etc)

It is not interchangeable with a term called "short-for". It can also be the familiar or truncated form of the proper name, which may sometimes be used simply for convenience (e.g. "Bobby", "Bob", "Rob", or "Bert" for the name Robert).

A nickname is sometimes considered desirable, symbolising a form of acceptance, but can often be a form of ridicule.

They may refer to a person's occupation, social standing, or title. They may also refer to characterists of a person.

  1.  "Bones" for a forensic scientistsurgeon, or mortician
  2.  "Sawbones" for a surgeon.
  3.  "Doc" for a doctor.
  4.  "Sparky" for an electrician
  5.  "Sarge" for a military Sergeant as in the comic strip Beetle Bailey
  6.  "Lou" for a Lieutenant (for example, a police lieutenant)
  7.  Similarly, "Chief" for a police or fire chief
  8.  Moneybags for a wealthy person.
  9.  Genius or brains for some one at school who is believed to be a clever person, although it should be said that "genius" in this colloquial sense is not the same as the technical use of the term "genius" in psychology.

Nicknames are formed with a certain unspoken format, and they have a particular importance.

63. … it is the practice and science (study) of classification of things or concepts. 

Taxonomy (general), the practice and science (study) of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification

Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. The word is also used as a count nouna taxonomy, or taxonomic scheme, is a particular classification. The word finds its roots in the Greek τάξιςtaxis (meaning 'order', 'arrangement') and νόμοςnomos ('law' or 'science'). Originally taxonomy referred only to the classifying of organisms or a particular classification of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a classification of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a classification. Taxonomy is different from meronomy which is dealing with the classification of parts of a whole.

Many taxonomies have a hierarchical structure, but this is not a requirement. Taxonomy uses taxonomic units, known as taxa (singular taxon).

64. … it refers to a culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups

Folk culture refers to a culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups. Historically, handed down through oral tradition, it demonstrates the "old ways" over novelty and relates to a sense ofcommunity. Folk culture is quite often imbued with a sense of place. If elements of a folk culture are copied by, or moved to, a foreign locale, they will still carry strong connotations of their original place of creation.

Examples of American folk cultures include:

  1.  Powwows
  2.  Native tribal regalia
  3.  The cakewalk
  4.  Louisiana Creole cuisinemusic, and language
  5.  Handmade quilts
  6.  The Hawaiian hulaleis, a pantheon of nature gods, and the concept of aloha
  7.  Shaker architecture and furniture
  8.  Whale-hunting with traditional spiritual rites of some Alaskan tribes
  9.  Tepees
  10.  Hand-gathered Wild rice gleaned in the traditional manner in the United States' northwoods

The above-mentioned have entered mainstream consciousness to varying degrees, but none have been so distorted from their original form as to have lost their culturally specific sense of place. In contrast, blue jeans and McDonald's are cultural icons which have been made so internationalized they have lost their original sense of place, and they are no longer part of folk culture.

65. ...is a term, developed in the late 19th and early 20th century, that refers to the relationship between artifacts and social relations.

  1.  In the social sciences, material culture refers to the relationship between artifacts and social relations
  2.  Anthropologists thus distinguish between material culture and symbolic culture, not only because each reflects different kinds of human activity, but also because they constitute different kinds of data and require different methodologies to study
  3.  Examples of material culture include fashion, clothes, magazines, newspapers, records, CDs, computer games, books, cars, houses and architecture—anything that people make or build.

So, Material culture is the physical evidence of a culture in the objects and architecture they make, or have made. 

66. ...is a type of social interaction occuring between two people where they will converse or exchange knowledge, an example of this type of communication is a simple conversation between friends.

Face-to-face interaction

Is a type of social interaction occuring between two people where they will converse or exchange knowledge, an example of this type of communication is a simple conversation between friends.

Face-to-face interaction: "the majority of communication observed within school and educational institutions is face to face interactions between two individual's, for example, talking."

In a face-to-face interaction you can truly listen to your client and understand what he or she really need opposed to any other communication via the phone or email.

In a face-to-face meeting we get the chance to read the body language of our colleagues and clients; their body, tone of voice and facial expressions often communicate so much more than just words. Studies show that only a small percent of our communication involves actual words: 7%. In fact, 55% of our communication is visual (body language and facial expressions) and 38% is vocal (pitch, speed, volume, and tone of voice). Therefore the face-to-face interaction is much more effective.

67. Give an example of discourse community .

A discourse community is a group of communicators with a common goal or interest that adopts certain preferred ways of participating in public discussion. These preferred ways of discussion are called discursive practices. Generally, these discursive practices involve various genres (academic papers, books, lectures, debates, TV and radio programming, etc.) and require the mastery of certain special terminology or jargon. Most people participate regularly in several different discourse communities.

Some examples of discourse communities:

Academia: College and post-graduate studies come with their own language conventions. If you doubt this, consider how the manner in which you write academic papers differs from the way you write e-mails to close friends. The academic discourse community is quite broad, and comprises many sub-communities of specific fields and disciplines (biology, history, literature, mathematics, etc.).

Politics: Think about the way in which politicians typically speak, and there is llittle doubt that they are members of a discourse community. Those who break from accepted norms of discourse (think Howard Dean's famous howling speech in New Hampshire) are often "demoted" from positions of power in the community.

Computer Programming: Anyone unclear on the concept of discourse communities simply needs to listen to a discussion among a group of computer programmers. Clearly, this is a community that requires highly specialized knowledge, expertise, and a grasp of a complicated lexicon of terminology and jargon. 

68. Give an example of distinctive culture.

A distinct culture is a culture with unique characteristics and a rich, distinguishable historical background.

Examples of distinct culture are:

China

Chinese art encompasses fine arts, folk arts and performance arts.

Chinese art is divided into periods by the ruling dynasties of China like the Shang dynasty, Song Dynasty, Ming dynasty, Yuan dynasty and Qing dynasty to name a few.

Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. The earliest paintings were not representational but ornamental; they consisted of patterns or designs rather than pictures. Stone Age pottery was painted with spirals, zigzags, dots, or animals.

 

India

Indian art intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies.

Indian art can be classified into;

Ancient art period (3500 BCE-12ooCE)
Islamic ascendancy (712-1757 CE)
The Colonial period (1757-1947)
Independence and Carissaism the postcolonial period (Post-1947)
Modernism
Postmodernism

 

Japan

Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper and more recently manga, cartoon, along with a myriad of other types of works of art.

Japanese art is divided  into Jōmon art, Yayoi art, Kofun art, Asuka and Nara art, Heian art, Kamakura art, Muromachi art and Azuchi-Momoyama art.

 

Native America

Native American art refers to the artistic traditions of indigenous peoples of the Americas encompassing the time period from ancient times to the present.

 

Africa

African art constitutes one of the most diverse legacies. African art emphasizes on human figure, visual abstraction, sculpture and performance art.

It is one of the most diverse legacies on the earth.

69. Do face-to-face interactions  are still valuable?  

Nothing can replace the value of face-to-face communication. However in a growing business, traveling to meet with customers and team members is not always feasible or economical. We communicate over email and phone, but even then, messages get misinterpreted and a sense of personal connection is never truly established or maintained. In fact, it’s said that over 90% of how we communicate is through nonverbal cues like gestures and facial expressions. With that said, one cannot underestimate the power of video conferencing to enable businesses to maximize the effectiveness of their communications. Here are just some of the many advantages of face-to-face communication.

 Effectiveness of meetings: Things get done. When there’s an issue that requires a decision, you’re able to reach a consensus more quickly. One simple 5 minute conversation could eliminate 15 back and forth emails. When there are many people in a meeting, there’s more energy and opportunities to participate and creatively contribute. Oftentimes there’s also a synergy that’s achieved which ignites discussion and innovative thinking. You can brainstorm more easily and solve a handful of problems. 

Nonverbal communication: Reacting and adjusting to nonverbal cues. Someone who is frequently checking their watch or yawning, would tell you very easily that it’s time to wrap things up or make an effort to change the quality of your voice to be more engaging (or at least change the subject.) And the very opposite is also true; if colleagues are smiling, nodding or leaning forward, you know that they’re invested and have their buy-in. There isn’t much guesswork involved.

A personal touch: Plain and simple, it’s just nice. There’s a feeling of community because we’re better able to socialize and interact with one another.  We quickly build a bond that sets the foundation for trust and ultimately, lasting business relationships. 

70. What does the linguistic communication consist of? 

linguistic communication - a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols; "he taught foreign languages"; "the language introduced is standard throughout the text"; "the speed with which a program can be executed depends on the language in which it is written"

In communication it is possible to allocate a number of aspects:  contents, purpose and means of communication.

1 . The content of communication - information which is transferred in interindividual contacts from one living being to another. The contents of information are most various in case subjects of communication are people. Means of communication - ways of coding, transfer, processing and interpretation of information which is transferred in communication process from one being to another.  

2  .  The process of communication.

First, it consists directly of the act of communication, communication in which one person is communicating with another.  Secondly, communicants should make the action itself , which we call communication, ie do something ( say , gesticulating , allow "read" with their faces certain expression , indicating , for example, about the emotions experienced in connection with what is reported ) . Thirdly , it is necessary to further define each communicative act channel( auditory- verbal,  visual- verbal, visual, verbal)

3  .  Communication structure.

It is possible to approach to structure of communication differently, in this case the structure by allocation in communication of three interconnected parties will be characterized:  communicative, interactive and perceptual.  

71. What does folk culture refer to?

Folk culture refers to a culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.[1] Historically, handed down through oral tradition, it demonstrates the "old ways" over novelty and relates to a sense ofcommunity. Folk culture is quite often imbued with a sense of place. If elements of a folk culture are copied by, or moved to, a foreign locale, they will still carry strong connotations of their original place of creation.

Folk culture is a way of life of many people that live in small towns or rural communities. These people still have get togethers and make their own music. These people will use things that their great grandparents used over the years. They may not use electricity, but use lanterns instead. Some examples of folk culture are homemade quilts, powwows, native Indians tribal clothing, culture foods such a creole from Louisiana, music, language from ancestors, and whale hunting in parts of Alaska.

72. What did Ward Goodenough emphasize?

Ward Goodenough (b. 1919) is one of cognitive anthropology’s early leading scholars, inaugurating the subdiscipline in 1956 with the publication of “Componential Analysis and the Study of Meaning” in a volume of Language. He helped to establish a methodology for studying cultural systems. His fundamental contribution was in the framing of componential analysis, now more commonly referred to as feature analysis. Basically, componential analysis, borrowing its methods from linguistic anthropology, involved the construction of a matrix that contrasted the binary attributes of a domain in terms of pluses (presence) and minuses (absence). The co-occurrence of traits could then be analyzed as well as attribute distribution. For specifics refer to "Property, Kin, and Community on Truk" (1951), "Componential Analysis and the Study of Meaning" (1956) and "Componential Analysis of Konkama Lapp Kinship Terminologies" (1964). Several years later he analyzed the terminology of Yankee kinship to critique an apparent flaw with the method: the possibility of constructing many valid models using the same data. Essentially, he challenged the reliability of the results produced stating that the finding had "profound implications for cultural theory, calling into question the anthropological premise that a society’s culture is ‘shared’ by its members," He concluded that the relationship of componential analysis and cognition must remain inconclusive until further debate has been settled. Indeed, componential analysis presently serves as only a part of analytic methodology instead of its primary method.

Goodenough laid out the basic premises for the "new ethnography," as ethnoscience was sometimes known. He states that "culture is a conceptual mode underlying human behavior ", in that, it refers to the "standards for deciding what is . . . for deciding how one feels about it, and . . . for deciding how to go about doing it,”

Goodenough proposed that to successfully navigate their social world individuals must control a certain level of knowledge, that he calls a "mental template."

73. …  is one of the basic concepts of any culture and has a great axiological (=philosophical study) value.  

The concept Good is one of the basic concepts of any culture and has a great axiological (=philosophical study) value. Every language has a word “good“, which has a meaning “possessing the right quality and mor al excellence” (Britannica 2008).

“Good” is a broad concept but it typically is assoc iated with life, continuity, happiness, prosperity and truth. The dichotomy of good and evel are inseparable. It is difficult to describe the concept of good without the opposition of bad or evel. Thus resting on this dichotomy and depending on the context, good (and evil) may represent judgments, norms, claims of absolute value related to human nature or to various standards.

The concept of good apart from God is an illusion. God is the absolute concept of “good”. People cannot categorize God’s deeds into “ good” and “bad”, but unambiguously, what God does is good. Thus God is the initial and absolute concept of good. The good is light, love, life, heaven and positiveness (Weetaluktuk 2010). Goodness is not something over and above what can be found in each good thing; it never exists apart from good things, it is merely a quality that can be found in each.

74. What does a linguo-concept consist of? Linguo-cultural concept as a subject of study of linguo-culture appears to the researchers as a cultural, mental and linguistic education.

The linguo- cultural concept differs from other units in its mental nature. Mentality is perceived as a guided collection of images and perceptions. Linguo-cultural concept differs from other mental units by the presence of the value component. Value is always in the centre of the concept.

A linguo-concept consists of distinguish evaluative, figurative and conceptual components. Notional component of the concept is stored in the verbal form. A figurative component isnon-verbal and can be described or interpreted at most.

Concept includes such semiotics categories as the image, the notion and meaning in the reduced form, as a kind of „hyperonym” (generic ter m) and is characterized as heterogeneous and multi-featured. The concept acquired the discursive meaning representation from the notion, from the image it appropriated metaphor and emotiveness, and from the meaning it acquired the inclusion of the name (concept).

75. How many components of the concept “good” you know, describe them.

The concept Good is one of the basic concepts of any culture and has a great axiological (=philosophical study) value. Every language has a word “good“, which has a meaning “possessing the right quality and moral excellence”

“Good” is a broad concept but it typically is associated with life, continuity, happiness, prosperity and truth. It is difficult to describe the concept of good without the opposition of bad or evil. Thus resting on this dichotomy and depending on the context, good (and evil) may represent judgments, norms, claims of absolute value related to human nature or to various standards.

Three main components of “good”-conceptual, significant and figurative.

The concept of good apart from God is an illusion. God is the absolute concept of “good”. People can not categorize God’s deeds into “good” and “bad”, but unambiguously, what God does is good. Thus God is the initial and absolute concept of good. The good is light, love, life, heaven and positiveness.

“Good” might represent a hope that natural love can be continuous, expansive, and all-inclusive.

 “Good” produces the best consequences upon the people lives, and their states of well being.

  1.  

3. Прагма- профессиональные задания

  1.  What are the problems affecting lingua cultural science?
  1.  Do you use language situation in common life? What kind of?
  1.  What are components of “good”

A linguo-concept consists of distinct evaluative, figurative and conceptual components. The notional component of the concept is stored in the verbal form. The

figurative component is non-verbal and can be described or interpreted.

Every language has the word good, which has the meaning

‘possessing the right quality and moral excellence’ (Britannica 2008). Good is a

broad concept but typically it is associated with life, continuity, happiness, prosperity and truth. The dichotomy of Good and evIl is inseparable. It is difficult to describe the concept of good without the opposition of bad or evil. Thus resting on this

dichotomy and depending on the context, good (and evil) may represent judgments,

norms, claims of absolute value related to human nature or to various standards.

Next the figurative component of the concept Good based on the

novel “The Chronicles of Narnia” will be discussed.

The informative content of the concept Good is very close to the encyclopaedic

dictionary definition of the keyword of the concept (Britannica 2008). Good – kind;

pleasant; enjoyable; morally right (Britannica 2008). The content of the concept, according to Croft and Cruse, in other words is called the interpretive field. It includes

the cognitive features, which in one or another way interpret the basic informative

content of the concept. The cognitive features are derived from the concept representing some inferential knowledge or estimate it (Croft, Cruse 2004). Thus, white,

merry, laugh, light, bright, clear, green, will be included in the interpretative field of

the concept Good.  

  1.  What is the concept of good apart from God?

In a monotheistic (one God, religious) contexts, the concept of God is derived as an infinite projection of love and goodness in

people’s lives. What is good and what is evil is determined for all humanity by God.

The concept of good apart from God is an illusion. God is the absolute concept of

‘good’. People cannot categorize God’s deeds into “good” and “bad”, but unambiguously, what God does is good. Thus God is the initial and absolute concept of good.

The good is light, love, life, heaven and positiveness (Weetaluktuk 2010). Goodness

is not something over and above what can be found in each good thing; it never exists apart from good things, it is merely a quality that can be found in each.

As a philosophical concept, Good might represent a hope that natural love can

be continuous, expansive, and all-inclusive. Theories of moral goodness are interes-32

Filologija 2011 (16)

ted in various sorts of things that are good, and in the abstract meaning of the word

good. In other contexts, good is whatever produces the best consequences upon the

people’s lives and their states of wellbeing

  1.  What might “God” represent?

Representing God is a theme that pervades Scripture and history, throughout the various eras, and in a number of ways:

  1.  Human beings, representing God to all the rest of Creation (Genesis 1).
  2.  People of Israel, representing God to the other peoples.
  3.  Priests, representing the people before God
  4.  Prophets, representing God's messages to people
  5.  Jesus Christ, God representing himself as a human being to all humanity and creation and achieving the means to the following.
  6.  Believers in whom God's Holy Spirit lives - mature sons of God as we saw above - representing God in amongst all humanity.
  7.  In the life-to-come, human beings will again represent God to all the rest of creation, but in purity and in new, more glorious ways.

The ones that most apply today are the first, last and second-last.

Representing God involves at least four things:

  1.  Showing what the One True God is like, so that the others can experience something of God and thus be blessed (the work of witness)
  2.  Modelling how the God intended humanity to operate in the world; Demonstrating how life can be lived to the fullest and richest and healthiest extent, i.e. as God intended (the work of witness)
  3.  Critiquing the world, communicating what is required of us all (the representative and the others) by way of response to God and his world (the work of prophets).
  4.  Being human and social vehicles through whom God acts in the world (the work of rulers)
  5.  Bringing those represented before God (the work of priests)
  6.  Inviting and welcoming people who want to join with the One True God (the work of evangelism);

  1.  When has ethnolinguistic research gained substantial popularity?
  1.  What is a leading metaphor for the focus of ethnolinguistic research efforts?

that of the ‘linguistic picture of the world’. As large-scale comparative projects on ‘linguistic pictures of the world’ are taking shape, it might be worth reflecting on what this conceptualisation of ethnolinguistics excludes. The visual metaphor of pictures implies that speakers can step out of the world and view (and name) it from outside. Two problematic consequences of this metaphor are discussed. Firstly, the detachment of language from the world of activities of which it is part leads to the adoption of a cognitivist model of linguistic meaning as a separate stream of communication. Such a model is inconsistent with the experienced transparency of language in everyday life. Secondly, the detachment of language from life supports the use of ‘timeless’ methods, the study of words outside of their situation (if not out of their ‘context’) of use. Adopting these metaphors and methods, we might miss large parts of the significance of language for everyday life – the object of ethnoscience.

  1.  What does the visual metaphor of pictures imply?

A visual metaphor is an image used in the place of or in conjunction with another to suggest an analogy between the images or make a statement with them. In Western culture, metaphors are generally thought of as being verbal. In other cultures where the tradition is oral rather than written, metaphors may be primarily visual and are interpreted in a different way. Even in Western culture, it is beginning to be understood that metaphors can be extended from the verbal into the visual realm. Both verbal and visual metaphors are a way of organizing knowledge and understanding and can be used to express ideas.

A metaphor is usually defined as a figure of speech in which a word or phrase expressing one kind of idea is used in place of another to express an idea or analogy. For example, “Love is an ocean.” By definition, metaphor excludes visual content by referring only to words and phrases. The concept of metaphor can, however, can be used with visual terms. For example, avisual metaphor composed of a clock enclosed within the dollar sign can express visually the verbal metaphor “time is money.”

  1.  Are all elements of consciousness are the product of cultural life? Express your thoughts

All states of consciousness contain the same elements. The difference in the quality of these states arises from the quantity of one element of consciousness, for instance the elements of thinking occupy a larger place than those of feeling. Knowing the elements and their combinations that make up the various states of consciousness is vital. We may isolate and analyze any single experience to learn just what factors of the mind are most prominent.

The generally accepted classifications are cognition, feeling, and will. Cognition includes sensations, representations, and thoughts. Will includes impulse, purpose, and resolve. The two denote the conscious sides of life, which we turn toward the outer world. Cognition enables us to form an image of the external world and of ourselves as a part of it, while Will enables us to react on that world.

Feeling is the side that faces the inner and unseen factors of experience. It cannot become an element of a percept or image. Feeling may rise to become an inner illumination on the stream of ideas and sensations. The feeling elements, as contrasted with the other conscious elements, act independently. For instance, feeling does not necessarily accompany any definite condition.

In the maturity of a normal life, cognition and will assert themselves to balance feeling, but activity is free from feeling. Neither is cognition separate from will. The rule is that the fewer elements of cognition and will, the more feeling, sensation and passion.

A state of life where the struggle for existence is not immediate is the only condition under which a definite distinction between the various elements of consciousness is possible. The psychological elements are not isolated, since we must react perpetually and instantaneously upon the external world, where our position in the universe determines our life, and where we must bring our surroundings into harmony with ourselves, or ourselves with them. Science and art do not develop, and the shady sides of consciousness, such as depression and sentimentality do not appear. In the "simple life" people are not "nervous."

  1.  Who does linguistic worldview unite in a given social environment?
  1.  What does linguistic worldview create?

Linguistic worldview is a language-entrenched interpretation of reality, which can be expressed in the form of judgments about the world, people, things or events. It is an interpretation, not a refection; it is a portraitwithout claims to fidelity, not a photograph of real objects. The interpretation is a result of subjective perception andconceptualization of reality performed by the speakers of a given language; thus, it is clearly subjective and anthropocentric but alsointersubjective (social). It unites people in a given social environment, creates a community of thoughts, feelings and values. Itinfluences the perception and understanding of the social situation by a member of the community.

12 What does linguistic worldview influence?

Linguistic worldview is a language-entrenched interpretation of reality, which can be expressed in the form of judgments about the world, people, things or events. It is an interpretation, not a refection; it is a portraitwithout claims to fidelity, not a photograph of real objects. The interpretation is a result of subjective perception andconceptualization of reality performed by the speakers of a given language; thus, it is clearly subjective and anthropocentric but alsointersubjective (social). It unites people in a given social environment, creates a community of thoughts, feelings and values. Itinfluences the perception and understanding of the social situation by a member of the community.

  1.  What is the worldview is in the sense of Apresyan?

The worldview is ‘naive’ in the sense of Apresyan, i.e. constructed by a human being, relative to human measure, anthropometric, but also adapted to social needs and ethnocentric mentality (Apresjan, 1994). For example - in the colloquial, naive view of humans and their world, the sun still rises and sets (five centuries after Copernicus!), starstwinkle, the road goes from one place to another, water is healthy or not, plants are good and useful (corn, herbs) or not (weeds), things are cold,heavy or tall in relation to an average person, etc. Te worldview is based onsensory stimuli, concrete and practical: it suffices for the purpose of everyday communication. It is at the disposal of the speaker as his or hercultural endowment: as all linguistic constructs, it may be subjected toindividual modulation.

  1.  What does the lexis provide?

The most obvious, unquestionable basis for investigating linguistic worldview has so far been the lexis, conceived of as a classifier of social experience. The lexis provides access to the conceptual sphere of a given culture, the realm of conceptions and images crucial for that culture.

  1.  What did Sapir emphasize? Do you agree with his statements

Sapir emphasised that “vocabulary is a very sensitive index of the culture of a people” (Sapir, 1957: 34, 36). In this context, the first and fundamental question is the very range of lexis (words and concepts); lexis as an ‘inventory of culture’, living and dynamic, continually enriched with new items, a kind of seismograph registering changes in the society, civilization and culture.

  1.  What is the horse in traditional village culture?

The horse in traditional village culture is perceived not so much as an animal, but as a ‘domestic animal’, an element of the livestock. Te closesthyperonyms of koń are inwentarz żywy, żywina, chudoba ‘livestock’. The horse is perceived in certain typical collections: with a saddle, reins and bridle (a saddle-horse), with a cart and a plough (a draught-horse) or with a man who rides it (a cavalryman, a soldier). With regard to its strength the horse is similar to the bull, lion and bear; the sun is also compared to the horse.

  1.  What are cultural equivalents of the horse?

Cultural equivalents of the horse are the motor-bike and the car.

  1.  What is important in defining words?

It is important in defining words to establish the point of departure, i.e. the superordinate category to which a given object is assigned and in terms of which it is characterized. A definition which aims to reflect the conceptualization of the object must, in the case of, say, bluebottle (Pol.bławatek) choose between a ‘plant’, ‘flower’ and ‘weed’, in the case ofwheat (Pol. pszenica) between a ‘plant’, ‘grass’ and ‘corn’, in the case of the sun between a ‘gaseous sphere’, a ‘heavenly body’, a ‘star’, ‘light’ etc. Each choice has its consequences, for it determines the perspective of conceptualization, as well as introducing more or less distinct characteristics. Sometimes the super ordinate categorizing element determines the content and structure of the definition. If the dictionary definition is to have a linguistic nature, to reflect the understanding of the object by the speaker and to contribute to the reconstruction of linguistic worldview, it must respect the colloquial conceptualization. First, it must select the hyperonym from the closest taxonomic level, relative to the language user, not the researcher (e.g. wheat is a corn, not a plant (the principle is discussed in Bartmiński, 1991a). Second, it must take note of the point of view of the subject (the sun is light, not a gaseous sphere). Te selection of the superordinate category is also related to the accepted system of values: the identification of categories such as weeds and cornderives from the pragmatic outlook onto the plant world typical of a farmer.

  1.  What is an important aspect of linguistic worldview?

An important aspect of linguistic worldview is the so called ‘inner form’ of a word (Humboldt’s innere Sprachforminnere Gedankenform), also mentioned by Jan Rozwadowski (died 1935), a pioneer of the cognitivist approach in Poland. Especially in the case of languages with rich word formation, e.g. the Slavic branch, asking questions about the mechanism of creating names and about their onomasiological foundations, allows for accessing the linguistic means of interpretation of a given object or phenomenon.

  1.  How the conceptualizations of natural phenomena can be revealed?

. The conceptualisations of natural phenomena can also be revealed through an analysis of their names.

For example, a rainbow may receive its name from its connection with clouds (e.g. the Polish tęcza is related to Russian tuča ‘cloud’), the rain (German Regenbogen, English rainbow), an arch-like shape (French arc-en-ciel, Lithuanian vaivorykštė, English rainbow).

The Earth’s satellite is called księżyc in Polish (‘a young priest’, ‘prince’, originally ‘new moon’) or miesiąc (from measuring time; the root *mēs-‘measure’ is present in many other languages); in Russian it is calledluna (from luna, Pol. łuna ‘glow in the sky’, cf. REW, 1950–1958).

The planet Venus is colloquially categorised as a star and termed relative to the time of its appearance: Gwiazda Poranna ‘The Morning Star’/Jutrzenka, from jutro ‘tomorrow’, or Gwiazda Wieczorna/Wieczornica ‘The Evening Star’ (SSSL, 1996–1999, vol. 1–1 5), or the time when it can be seen, cf. Ukrainian Zirnycia, from zora ‘light, glow’, Russian Dennitsa, from den ‘day’.

  1.  What do names contain?

Names contain a perspective from which reality is viewed.

The Polish suwerenność ‘sovereignty’ is treated as a synonym ofniezależnośćniezawisłość and niepodległość ‘independence’, but each form represents a diferent viewpoint.

Suwerenność is an adapted borrowing of the French souverenité and is conceptually related to zwierzchnictwo ‘supremacy’: it is a manifestation of the ‘top-down’ perspective.

Niezależnośćniezawisłość and niepodległość manifest a rank-and-file perspective, from the point of view of the party threatened with the loss of self-government and self-sufficiency, with dependence and subordination. A similar internal form can be found in other languages: Russiannezavisimost’, Ukrainian nezalezhnist’, German Unabhängigkeit.

  1.  What the ‘phraseological picture of the world’ is usually based on?

The ‘phraseological picture of the world’ has certain peculiar characteristics and is usually based on historical, often fossilized knowledge, which can only be accessed through etymological investigations.

23) What do the metaphors represent? A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word of phrase, which ordinarily designates a certain thing, is used to refer to another thing. It can also be used for any rhetorical figures of speech that achieve their effects through comparison and association.

24) How many simultaneous pressure does metaphorical conceptualization in natural situations occur? Metaphorical conceptualization in natural situations occurs under two

simultaneous pressures: the pressure of embodiment and the pressure of context.

Context is determined by local culture. This dual pressure essentially amounts to

our effort to be coherent both with the body and culture – coherent both with

universal embodiment and the culture-specificity of local culture in the course of

metaphorical conceptualization. We can achieve this in some cases, but in others it

is either embodiment or cultural specificity that plays the more important role.

Context may be characterized by physical, social, cultural, discourse, etc.

aspects, and it consists of such factors as the setting, topic, audience, and medium,

which can all influence metaphorical conceptualization.

25) What simultaneous pressure do you know?

a)the pressure of embodiment b) the pressure of context. Metaphorical conceptualization in natural situations occurs under two

simultaneous pressures: the pressure of embodiment and the pressure of context.

Context is determined by local culture. This dual pressure essentially amounts to

our effort to be coherent both with the body and culture – coherent both with

universal embodiment and the culture-specificity of local culture in the course of

metaphorical conceptualization. We can achieve this in some cases, but in others it

is either embodiment or cultural specificity that plays the more important role.  

Context may be characterized by physical, social, cultural, discourse, etc.

aspects, and it consists of such factors as the setting, topic, audience, and medium,

which can all influence metaphorical conceptualization. The pressure of

context is another inevitable component in the use of metaphors. Our effort to be

coherent with the local context may be an important tool in understanding the use

of metaphors in natural discourse. This aspect of metaphor use has so far remained

outside the interest and, indeed, the competence of “traditional” conceptual

metaphor theory. With the help of the new conceptual tools briefly introduced in

this section, the study of these exciting cases of metaphor use may open up new

possibilities in our understanding of linguistic and cultural creativity within the

framework of conceptual metaphor theory.

26) We understand a “local” culture to be the means by which a community built to human scale preserves itself and its place. Members of a local culture care for themselves and one another, for their land and air and water, not only by local knowledge and skill but also by restraint and virtue, by justice and mercy, and by the principles of economic cooperation.

The term local culture is commonly used to characterize the experience of everyday life in specific, identifiable localities. It reflects ordinary people’s feelings of appropriateness, comfort, and correctness—attributes that define personal preferences and changing tastes.

27) What is the most obvious dimension along which metaphors vary? The most obvious dimension along which metaphors vary is the cross-cultural

dimension.  Variation in this dimension can be found in several distinct forms. One

of them is what I call “congruence.” This is obtained between a generic-level

metaphor and several specific-level ones. Another is the case where a culture uses a

set of different source domains for a particular target domain, or conversely, where

a culture uses a particular source domain for conceptualising a set of different

target domains. Yet another situation involves cases where the set of conceptual

metaphors for a particular target domain is roughly the same between two

languages/cultures, but one language/culture shows a clear preference for some of

the conceptual metaphors that are employed. Finally, there may be some

conceptual metaphors that appear to be unique to a given language/culture. I will

demonstrate congruence and alternative metaphorical conceptualization by some

examples.

Congruent metaphors. There is some evidence that THE ANGRY PERSON IS A

PRESSURIZED CONTAINER metaphor may be near-universal (see Kövecses 2000a).

What is especially important about this conceptual metaphor is that it functions at

an extremely general level. The metaphor does not specify many things that could

be specified. For example, it does not say what kind of container is used, how the

pressure arises, whether the container is heated or not, what kind of substance fills

the container (liquid, substance, or objects), what consequences the explosion has,

and so on. The metaphor constitutes a generic schema that gets filled out by each

culture that has the metaphor. When it is filled out, it receives unique cultural

content at a specific level. In other words, a generic-level conceptual metaphor is

instantiated in culture-specific ways at a specific level. This is one kind of crosscultural variation.  

28) What has the use of 'authentic texts' been? Authentic texts have been defined as “…real-life texts, not written for pedagogic

purposes” (Wallace 1992:145) They are therefore written for native speakers and contain “real”

language. They are “…materials that have been produced to fulfil some social purpose in the

language community.” (Peacock (1997), in contrast to non-authentic texts that are especially

designed for language learning purposes.

29) What is the concept of authenticity? The concept of authenticity is the idea of `being oneself' or `being true to oneself'  is widespread and familiar. It is one of the central notions of modern moral thought. Yet it is a puzzling and paradoxical notion. There is no problem in understanding how one person can be true or false to another: for example, by giving a correct or misleading impression of their feelings and thoughts. In this sense, the language of `authenticity' and `inauthenticity' can be applied even to things. A painting or an antique, for example, is said to be `authentic' when it is genuine, when it really is what it appears or purports to be; and `inauthentic' when it is an imitation or a fake. But a mere thing cannot be authentic or inauthentic in Oscar Wilde's sense, in the moral sense  it cannot be or fail to be itself or true to itself. A mere thing lacks a self and an identity in the relevant sense.

30) What do foreign language teachers have to do in order to achieve cultural authenticity?Before teachers can address the cultural and literacy needs of their students, they must first become aware of the influence of their own culture. Abt-Perkins and Rosen (2000) suggest that self-knowledge can be gained through "inquiry into cultural consciousness" so that teachers will discover "the assumptions and stereotypes which will create obstacles to culturally responsive teaching" (p. 254). Further, they suggest the need for teachers to "critique their own values pertaining to languages and dialects other than standard English, what counts as good literature, and the role they can play as English/language arts teachers in the success of students from diverse cultures in the schooling process" (p. 254). A teacher's culture, language, social interests, goals, cognitions, and values--especially if different from the students'--could conceivably create a barrier to understanding what is best for children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (Orange & Horwitz, 1999). Teachers can break through this barrier by reflecting on their self-knowledge and by learning to acknowledge and respect their students' language, literacy, literature, and cultural ways of knowing.

31) Why did politeness appear? Politeness is best expressed as the practical application of good manners or etiquette. It is a culturally defined phenomenon, and therefore what is considered polite in one culture can sometimes be quite rude or simply eccentric in another cultural context.

While the goal of politeness is to make all of the parties relaxed and comfortable with one another, these culturally defined standards at times may be manipulated to inflict shame on a designated party.

Anthropologists Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson identified two kinds of politeness, deriving from Erving Goffman's concept of face:

Negative politeness: Making a request less infringing, such as "If you don't mind..." or "If it isn't too much trouble..."; respects a person's right to act freely. In other words, deference. There is a greater use of indirect speech acts.

Positive politeness: Seeks to establish a positive relationship between parties; respects a person's need to be liked and understood. Direct speech acts, swearing and flouting Grice's maxims can be considered aspects of positive politeness because:

they show an awareness that the relationship is strong enough to cope with what would normally be considered impolite (in the popular understanding of the term);

they articulate an awareness of the other person's values, which fulfills the person's desire to be accepted.

Some cultures seem to prefer one of these kinds of politeness over the other. In this way politeness is culturally bound.

32) Concepts as elements of consciousness are …Consciousness is the quality or state of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. It has been defined as: sentience,awarenesssubjectivity, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood, and the executive control system of the mind.Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is. As Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness: "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives."

Many philosophers have argued that consciousness is a unitary concept that is understood intuitively by the majority of people in spite of the difficulty in defining it. Others, though, have argued that the level of disagreement about the meaning of the word indicates that it either means different things to different people (for instance, the objective versus subjective aspects of consciousness), or else is an umbrella term encompassing a variety of distinct meanings with no simple element in common.

Ned Block proposed a distinction between two types of consciousness that he called phenomenal (P-consciousness) and access (A-consciousness). P-consciousness, according to Block, is simply raw experience: it is moving, colored forms, sounds, sensations, emotions and feelings with our bodies and responses at the center. These experiences, considered independently of any impact on behavior, are called qualia. A-consciousness, on the other hand, is the phenomenon whereby information in our minds is accessible for verbal report, reasoning, and the control of behavior. So, when we perceive, information about what we perceive is access conscious; when we introspect, information about our thoughts is access conscious; when we remember, information about the past is access conscious, and so on. Although some philosophers, such as Daniel Dennett, have disputed the validity of this distinction, others have broadly accepted it. David Chalmers has argued that A-consciousness can in principle be understood in mechanistic terms, but that understanding P-consciousness is much more challenging: he calls this the hard problem of consciousness.

Some philosophers believe that Block's two types of consciousness are not the end of the story. William Lycan, for example, argued in his book Consciousness and Experience that at least eight clearly distinct types of consciousness can be identified (organism consciousness; control consciousness; consciousness of; state/event consciousness; reportability; introspective consciousness; subjective consciousness; self-consciousness)—and that even this list omits several more obscure forms

33) Who introduced the term heteroglossia?The term heteroglossia describes the coexistence of distinct varieties within a single "language" (in Greek: hetero- "different" and glōssa "tongue, language"). In this way the term translates the Russian разноречие [raznorechie] (literally "different-speech-ness"), which was introduced by the Russian linguist Mikhail Bakhtin in his 1934 paper Слово в романе [Slovo v romane], published in English as "Discourse in the Novel."

Bakhtin argues that the power of the novel originates in the coexistence of, and conflict between, different types of speech: the speech of characters, the speech of narrators, and even the speech of the author. He defines heteroglossia as "another's speech in another's language, serving to express authorial intentions but in a refracted way." Bakhtin identifies the direct narrative of the author, rather than dialogue between characters, as the primary location of this conflict.

34. What is also possible to do with authentic texts?

The use of 'authentic texts' has been one of the most important criteria acknowledged by writers of textbooks for foreign language teaching. Some claim that the concept of authenticity is an 'illusion' for classroom teaching. On the basis of the review, it looks at authenticity from a perspective that takes intercultural communicative competence as a point of departure. In this connection, it addresses four fundamental issues of authenticity for textbook writing in countries where English is taught as a foreign or second language, namely mutual representations, intention and interpretation, diachrony and synchrony and principles of contrivance.

The importance of using authentic texts:

  1.  Because reading is a meaning-making activity, it’s important to engage learners with texts that are meaningful to them. This does not mean that they always need to be about familiar content, but that the texts are interesting and worth reading. Learners need to be able to connect to the text in some way, and have a purpose for reading it.
  2.  Selecting texts to use for instructional and practice purposes is a particular challenge at this level. Unlike learners working at Step 2 and above on the learning progressions, learners at this level will not be able to use most everyday texts, such as newspapers, or specialist texts such as workbooks or manuals to learn and practise their skills.

35. Give the examples of “linguistic personality” displays in daily routine?

36. What difficulties do teachers see in teaching and developing materials based on the use of authentic texts?          The main concern was that materials are suited to the needs of the curriculum and learners, and the perception is that existing authentic materials may not meet these criteria. The most frequently mentioned concern was a perception that fully authentic texts were ”too difficult” or inaccessible in terms of complexity for lower levels:

Because people don’t make sense when they speak, they speak gobble-de-gook, and so on.

Another difficulty is the lack of texts that focus on the particular content of the course and/or needs of learners, a lack of language features normally taught in the course, and so on.

37. Give the examples of “speech acts” displays in daily routine?

In our daily utterance, our communication employs language in various ways. 

 Let us take a look at a simple example of a speech act. In uttering ‘let’s start’, one can suggest or indicate a beginning of some action, say a game of football or a group discussion. However, it can be interpreted variously. For instance, this utterance from a lecturer after entering a class can cause a speaker to take some action (i.e. signalling a start of a lecture) or alternatively cause a hearer/hearers to take some action (i.e. commanding/requesting silence in a classroom).

Another instance is the utterance ‘It is freezing in here!’, uttered immediately after entering a room with a window wide open in the middle of winter. It can be a simple statement concerning the low temperature in the room, but it can be a request from a speaker to a hearer to close the window. The case is sometimes called an indirect speech act, consisting of two subtypes, i.e. the primary illocutionary act (request to close the window) and the secondary illocutionary act (simple description of the temperature).

          

38. What concept can these proverbs illustrate: “Affection blinds reason”,

“Faults are thick where love is thin”, “To hide the key to your heart is to risk

forgetting where you placed it”?        “Affection blinds reason”- Любовь злаполюбишь и козла. / Любовь слепа.

Faults are thick where love is thin” - Много недостатков видят в тех, кого мало любят. Ср. Все терплю, потому что люблю.

To hide the key to your heart is to risk forgetting where you placed it- Скрывать ключ к вашему сердцу означает, что вы рискуете забыть, где вы спрятали их.

All these proverbs illustrate the concept of “LOVE”.

   

39. Can you find an example of an untranslatable word or structure in one of the

languages you speak? The word Toska/Russian – Vladmir Nabokov describes it best: “No single word in English renders all the shades of toska. At its deepest and most painful, it is a sensation of great spiritual anguish, often without any specific cause. At less morbid levels it is a dull ache of the soul, a longing with nothing to long for, a sick pining, a vague restlessness, mental throes, yearning. In particular cases it may be the desire for somebody or something specific, nostalgia, love-sickness. At the lowest level it grades into ennui, boredom.”

            

40. Compare/contrast the notions culture and civilization. Firstly, civilization in theory is bigger than culture in which an entire civilization can encompass one single unit of culture. Civilization is a bigger unit than culture because it is a complex aggregate of the society that dwells within a certain area, along with its forms of government, norms, and even culture. Thus, culture is just a spec or a portion of an entire civilization. For example, the Egyptian civilization has an Egyptian culture in the same way as the Greek civilization has their Greek culture.A culture ordinarily exists within a civilization. In this regard, each civilization can contain not only one but several cultures. Comparing culture and civilization is like showing the difference between language and the country to which it is being used.Culture can be something that is tangible and it can also be something that isn’t. Culture can become a physical material if it is a product of the beliefs, customs and practices of a certain people with a definite culture. But a civilization is something that can be seen as a whole and it is more or less tangible although its basic components, like culture, can be immaterial.

Summary :1.Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization.

2.Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formal civilization whereas a civilization will never grow and exist without the element of culture.

41. Give the examples of “concept” displays in daily routine?             

42. What classifications can culture have? Culture is a hot topic. Scholars (Fukoyama and Huntington, to mention but two) disagree about whether this is the end of history or the beginning of a particularly nasty chapter of it.

What makes cultures tick and why some of them tick discernibly better than others are the main bones of contention. Cultural interaction is no longer precipitated only via face-to-face encounters, immigration, visits, tourism, and trade. The emergence of radio, television, the Internet, and smartphones has created a virtual and global melting pot. One can benefit from cultural exchanges, be influenced by civilizations foreign and far-away, and react (positively or negatively) to them from the comfort of one’s swivel chair. The need to classify cultures has, therefore, become all that more urgent.\We can view cultures through the prism of their attitude towards their constituents: the individuals they are comprised of. More so, we can classify them in accordance with their approach towards "humanness", the experience of being human.\Some cultures are evidently anthropocentric – others are anthropo-transcendental.\A culture which cherishes the human potential and strives to create the conditions needed for its fullest realization and manifestation is an anthropocentric culture. Such striving is accepted to be the top priority, the crowning achievement, the measuring rod of such a culture’s attainment: its criterion for success or failure.\On the other pole of the dichotomy we find cultures which look beyond humanity. To paraphrase Hanna Arendt, they sacrifice the individual to advance the human species. This "transcendental" ouytlook has multiple purposes.\Some cultures want to transcend human limitations, others to derive meaning from such transcendence, yet others to leverage it in order to maintain social equilibrium. But what is common to all of them – regardless of purpose – is the subjugation of human endeavour, of human experience, human potential, really of all things human to this attempt at transcendence.

Guiding principles

  1.  Classify by visual appearance, not by use, except when use dictates appearance
  2.  Only objects over a certain size: roughly human-scale and larger
  3.  Only objects which are typically found "outdoors"
  4.  Only objects which are placed upon the terrain, not modifications to the terrain itself, e.g. tunnels and embankments
  5.  Plants and Animals are handled separately.

Open Issues

  1.  The hierarchy used here is entirely arbitrary and subjective.
  2.  This is an unavoidable since human language concepts are imprecise, and categorization is never a simple directed graph.  (For example, is a tent a building?  Is the space shuttle an air vehicle or a space vehicle?)
  3.  It seems advisable that any use of this classification should make as much use of the lowest-level classification as possible, de-emphasizing the less-objective parents.
  4.  How to handle synonyms, and other cases where there are multiple names for objects which are visually the same?  For now, separate with commas  (e.g. Satellite Dish, Radio Telescope)
  5.  Biased towards American English (we could handle other dialects/languages with comma notation)
  6.  With subjects such as airplanes, it is tempting to simply use the Manufacturer/Model as the classification, since there are a reasonable number of these and they are well-described.  Should we actually do that, or attempt a higher-level classification ("jumbo jet", "business jet", etc.)

           

43. What are the differences between culture and nature? The nature–culture divide, refers to a theoretical foundation of contemporary anthropology. Early anthropologists sought theoretical insight from the perceived tensions between culture, as a social entity, and nature, as a bio-physical entity. The argument became framed as to whether the two entities function separately from one another, or if they have a continuous biotic relationship with each other. Debate during the 1960s and '70s extended the debate to the role of women (as nature) and men (as culture).             

44. The relationship between language and culture. Varies studies have been carried out, among them, a well known hypothesis is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis made by two American linguists Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis describes the relationship between language, culture and thought. The core idea is that man’s language moulds his perception of reality. We see the world in the way that our language describes it, so that the world we live in is a linguistic construct(Liu Runqing). The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis has two major components: linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity. The former holds the idea that the way one thinks is determined by the language one speaks, because one can only perceive the world in terms of the categories and distinctions encoded in the language. The latter means that the categories and distinctions encoded in one language system are unique to that system and incommensurable with those of others, therefore, the difference among languages must be reflected in the differences in the worldviews of their speakers. Since the formulation of the hypothesis, discussions have never been ended. Many linguists and philosophers are against the linguistic determinism. They argue if language determines thought totally, and if there is no thought without language, speakers of different languages will never understand each other. Nevertheless, the weak interpretation of the hypothesis is now widely accepted that language do have influence on thought and culture. Evidence is easy to be found. A well known example is that Eskimos have countless words for snow while there is only one word ‘snow’ in English. Therefore, a ‘snow world’ in a Eskimo’s eye and an English speaker’s eye would be so different. This example shows that people’s perceptions of their surroundings are modified by the conceptual categories their languages happen to provide(Liu Runqing). Questions still remains: which goes first, the language or the culture? Is it the native language gives people different perceptions? Or on contrary, is the different worldviews and cultures determine the language?         

45. Compare the different ways that speakers of English and Navajo express their intentions and

actions (note that Navajo utterances have been translated into English):

ENGLISH SPEAKER: I must go there.

NAVAJO SPEAKER: It is only good that I shall go there.

ENGLISH SPEAKER: I make the horse run.

NAVAJO SPEAKER: The horse is running for me.             

46. Give examples of sociolinguistic varieties. In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster. This may include languagesdialectsaccents,registersstyles or other sociolinguistic variation, as well as the standard variety itself.[1] "Variety" avoids the terms language, which many people associate only with the standard language, and dialect, which is associated with non-standard varieties thought of as less prestigious or "correct" than the standard.[2]Linguists speak of both standard and non-standard varieties. "Lect" avoids the problem in ambiguous cases of deciding whether or not two varieties are distinct languages or dialects of a single language.Variation at the level of the lexicon, such as slang and argot, is often considered in relation to particular styles or levels of formality (also called registers), but such uses are sometimes discussed as varieties themselves. For example, Trudgill suggests the following sentence as an example of a nonstandard dialect used with the technical register of physical geography:

There was two eskers what we saw in them U-shaped valleys.[8]

            

47. Describe the possible reconstructions of the linguistic worldview. Five dimensions of the linguistics worldview and briey

elaborate on these:• Language reects the embodied nature of conceptual organization.

• Language is a lens for studying conceptual organization.

• Language provides a mechanism for construal.

• Language can inuence aspects of non-linguistic cognition.

• Humans have a common conceptualizing capacity.

Language reects conceptual organization             

48. What kind a difference between a language and a dialect is determinative? Language: speech varieties are different languages if they are not mutually intelligible.

Dialect: speech varieties are dialects of a language if they are mutually intelligible but differ in systematic ways.

DEFINITION OF LANGUAGE :- A language is a dynamic set of visual, auditory, or tactile symbols of communication and the elements used to manipulate them. Language can also refer to the use of such systems as a general phenomenon. Language is considered to be an exclusively human mode of communication; although animals make use of quite sophisticated communicative systems, none of these are known to make use of all of the properties that linguists use to define language. 

DEFINITION OF DIALECT :_ A dialect is a variety of a language that is characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class. \In popular usage, the word "dialect" is sometimes used to refer to a lesser-known language (most commonly a
regional language), especially one that is unwritten or not standardized. This use of the word dialect is often taken as pejorative by the speakers of the languages referred to since it is often accompanied by the erroneous belief that the minority language is lacking in vocabulary, grammar, or importance. \The number of speakers, and the geographical area covered by them, can be of arbitrary size, and a dialect might contain several sub-dialects. A dialect is a complete system of verbal communication (oral or signed, but not necessarily written) with its own vocabulary and grammar. \A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect. Other speech varieties include: standard languages, which are standardized for public performance (for example, a written standard); jargons, which are characterized by differences in lexicon (vocabulary); slang; patois; pidgins or argots. The particular speech patterns used by an individual are termed an idiolect. \A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (phonology, including prosody). Where a distinction can be made only in terms of pronunciation, the term accent is appropriate, not dialect (although in common usage, "dialect" and "accent" are usually synonymous). 

           

49. What are the differences between Anthropological linguistics and Ethno linguistics? Anthropological linguistics is the study of the relations between language and culture and the relations between human biologycognition and language. This strongly overlaps the field of linguistic anthropology, which is the branch of anthropology that studies humans through the languages that they use. Ethnolinguistics: Analyzing the relationship between culture, thought, and language. Ethnolinguistics looks at the relationship between discourse and language, while linguistic anthropology tends to make more general claims about vocabulary and grammar.              

50. Which social and cultural factors can influence on language? a nation’s characteristic and contains historical and cultural backgrounds of the nation. 

Geographic situations

In England, one can experience almost every kind of weather except the most extreme. You never can be sure

when the different types of weather will occur. Not only do we get several different sorts of weather in one day.

But, we may very well get a spell of winter in summer and vice-versa. This uncertainty about the weather has

had a definite effect upon the Englishman's language.

Relative relations

China is a country with five thousand years history book. And also Confucianism plays an important part in

Chinese history. The Chinese distinguish their relative relations seriously. This is caused by the feudalism culture.

In this culture, any social relationship must be stipulated by the relative titles. No matter it is funeral or wedding

or inherit the heritage, it must be done according to the relative tree.

In traditional Chinese family, there are usually a large members of people, including uncles, aunts, brothers, and

sisters, etc. so they tell “ge ge” from “didi”, and also tell from “meimei”to “jiejie”. In traditional English family,

they are nuclear family, only the parents and their children live together. So they don’t tell “shushu” from “bobo”,

not because they don’t do so, but because on most occasions, they don’t have to. The feudal culture enriches the

Chinese vocabulary, and causes more Chinese words about relative titles. And also because of the influence of

western culture, English don’t have many words about relative titles.

2.2.2 Social conditions

China is an agricultural nation, agriculture plays a very important part in the daily life of Chinese people. The

feature can also be reflected in our Chinese language. So there are manysentences related to agriculture in our

Chinese, for example, "xie jie gui tian", "tao li man tian xia", and so on. These all attribute to the influence of

Chinese culture.

The English history is an invasion history, it invades many countries in the history, and it used to be called "The

sun never setting empire". The Englishmen used to defeat the "Invincible fleet" of Spanish in Elizabeth age on

the sea and become the strongest country in the world at that time. So there are some English languages related

to sea and fishing like "be all at sea", "know the ropes". While the language related to agriculture is rare.           

51. Which knowledge does pragma-linguistics include? Pragmalinguistics, combining knowledge of linguistics and civilization, is a field under development within the realm of applied linguistics. It is concerned with the pragmatism of speech acts, which calls for knowledge of the relation between one linguistic element and the persons producing, using, and receiving it during the communicative situation. Pragmalinguistics attempts to develop a systematic inventory of all that belongs to communicative competence. Communicative competence includes not only grammar but also the way of living and the view of life specific to the competent speaker, since he needs them to make use of his ability to perform speech acts. Foreign language instruction should include these dimensions, as well as instruction in casual speech and fast speech rules in second language learning, since the highly conventional style taught by high school teachers is inappropriate for the majority of conversations the student will have.             

52. Give the examples of “cognitive linguistics” displays in daily routine? Cognitive Linguistics is the study of language in its cognitive function, where cognitive refers to the crucial role of intermediate informational structures with our encounters with the world. Cognitive linguistics . . . [assumes] that our interaction with the world is mediated through informational structures in the mind. It is more specific than cognitive psychology, however, by focusing on natural language as a means for organizing, processing, and conveying that information."

(1) Steve fell in the SWIMMING pool [without the circumstances of time]

Steve fell in the pool.

(2) Steve fell in the SWIMMING pool yesterday [with unstressed circumstance time]

Steve yesterday fell into the pool

(3) Last CHRISTMAS, Steve fell in the swimming pool [with the circumstances of time, bearing phrase stress located in the beginning of the sentence and separated pause]

Lack of time in the circumstances (1 ) indicates that the memory of the described event is fresh , in other words , information about the event is in memory of the surface , or at a later terminology Chafee has the status active. How long information is retained that status depends on several factors, primarily from the temporary removal of the events described , and its subjective importance of the flux density of the other events , so that a sentence like the English. My DAUGHTER died ( Rus My daughter died or I died DAUGHTER ) can be used and appropriate after many days , weeks and even months after the unfortunate events described           

53. What does linguistic competence provide?  to successful provision of services as are scientific, technical, and clinical knowledge and skills. linguistics refer to integrated patterns of human behavior that include language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or other groups (e.g., gender, gender identity/gender expression, age, national origin, sexual orientation, disability). Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations.             

  1.  54. Which knowledge does cross-cultural communication include? Be aware of the possibility of cultural difference
  2.  Acknowledge and respect difference
  3.  Strive to understand 

Ideas for better cross-cultural communication include:

  1.  Speak clearly, normal pace, normal volume, no colloquialisms, (i.e. ‘hang on a tick’) or double negatives (i.e. ‘not bad’)
  2.  Use short sentences
  3.  Provide instructions in a clear sequence
  4.  Summarise
  5.  Check understanding - ask questions which require more than a 'yes' or 'no' answer 
  6.  Demonstrate if possible
  7.  Write instructions down if necessary
  8.  Make procedures very clear
  9.  Be aware of non-verbal signals
  10.  Be patient non-English speakers may have to translate what you’ve said into their home language then try to convert their response back into English

                       

          

            




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