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Red nd trnslte the text. Retell the text using the words in bold type

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Unit I “The digital age”

1. Read and translate the text. Retell the text using the words in bold type.

Use of Computers in Everyday Life

Undoubtedly we can say that modern world will be incomplete without computers and their applications. It has become so common in our daily lives that it is almost impossible to imagine life without the use of computers. We get all the modern facilities; thanks to the invention of Computers!

Right from watching movies, listening to music, playing games, prepare office documents, prepare daily planners to latest facilities of emailing, chatting, video-conferencing and social interaction through networking, computers work simply amazingly! All the other modern gadgets are the outcomes of computer, like mobile phone, ipod, usb, cd, dvd, etc. Super fast computers are able to solve trillions of mathematical problems within a fraction of a second!

Earlier, calculators were commonly used while nowadays, even complex calculation can be done with the help of computers. It takes instruction in the form of input and provides output results accordingly. While calculator gives response to the immediate input only, computer work with a set of instructions installed in it, so it constantly works, with amazing speed. Complex mathematical problems can be solved within a fraction of a second. Because of this unique, exclusive features, computers play a vital and crucial role in Banking, Transportation, Travelling, Security, Business, Education, Tourism, Aviation, Government affairs, Defense, Medicine, Army, Emergency Services, etc.

Besides the above-mentioned sectors, the computers also play a pivotal role in our daily life in the form of E-shopping. Shopping via internet is common nowadays. Marketing, shopping, advertising, fashion designing, event organizing, job seeking, etc are all the latest usage of computers. Its usage and service applications can be classified into various categories. Thus it is slowly and positively dominating the lives of mankind, being a great source of information, education and entertainment!

Super computers are generally used for banking transactions, to keep track of railways, control aircrafts, and manage telecommunication system effectively, accurately and conveniently. Super computers are also used to perform complex surgeries in operation theatres. Laser surgery can be done easily, accurately and successfully nowadays.

It is a great means of entertainment to youngsters too, as they love using play stations and other video games. Just look around and we will find computers in every walk of life. The world without computers is unimaginable! Our lives would come at a standstill without computers. The world has become a global village due to telecommunication system worldwide. The knowledge about Space, Planetary System and the Universe as a whole, has come to our finger tips because of the latest developments in Science and Technology.

Earlier, it was merely a dream to travel in space, but the computers have made it possible to discover new heavenly bodies in space. Space travel has provided new information about planets and universe. No doubt, computer is the best innovative creation of Scientists, which serves the mankind in the best possible way. It is quite evident that our future generation will enjoy more creations and enjoy the fruits of labour of today’s mankind.

(based on: http://www.prlog.org)

2. Find English equivalents in the text:

Програма, сучасні можливості, винахід, взаємодія, сприймати команди, введення і виведення даних, встановлений, частка секунди, задачі можуть розвязуватися, унікальні та виняткові характеристики, відігравати життєво важливу і ключову роль, значне джерело інформації, освіти і розваг, для банківських операцій, наглядати за залізницями, керувати літаками, управляти телекомунікаційною системою, ефективно, точно та зручно, для виконання складних операцій, зупинятися, на кінчиках наших пальців, відкрити для себе нові небесні тіла, найкраще інноваційне утворення.

3. Complete the table, using the information from the text above and other resources.

How can be computers used in different spheres of social life?

Spheres of social life

The purpose of application

Army and defense

to conduct trainings, to detect enemy’s objects

Banking

Business

Education

Government affairs

Medicine

Science

Shopping

Transportation

Travelling

4. Use collocations from the box to complete these sentences:

transfer money give presentations make calls access the Internet store information perform operations make a backup display data

1. Thanks to Wi-Fi it’s now easy to __________ from restaurants, bus stations and other public places.

2. Online banking lets you __________ between your accounts easily and securely.

3. Skype is a technology that enables users to__________over the Internet for free.

4. In many universities, students are encouraged to_________ using PowerPoint in order to make their talks more visually attractive.

5. Cookies allow a website to __________ on a user's machine and later retrieve it; when you visit the website again, it remembers your preferences.

6. The arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)________ arithmetic and logical ________.

7. The first rule of data storage is to _________ of all important files.

8. A monitor accepts video signals from a computer and ________ on a screen.

5. Read and translate the text:

The evolution of computers

It is very hard to believe but computer's era begins in ancient times. The first mechanical devices that somewhat can be called a limited function computers appeared in 2500 BC. Well, Sumerian abacus cannot be called a real computer, but its goal was helping in various calculations. The slide rule that can be called a mechanical analog computer appeared in 1620. Looking deeply in the ancient history many interesting and useful machines, that can be referred as primitive computers can be found. There were machines which calculated the astronomical positions of stellar bodies.

The main idea is that the human is such a creature, whose aim is to create some devices to help him solving various problems. The main aim of every computer is to help us in calculations. The definition of the "computer" says that a computer is a programmable machine designed to automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The history of computer generations is very interesting field to explore, because since the 1946, when first real computers were created, they have evolved very rapidly.

The First Generation: Vacuum Tubes

The first computer generation appeared in 1946-1958. It is the era of vacuum tubes. The computers of this era were huge, very expensive, slow and had limited application capabilities. The first computer that had vacuum tubes was constructed in 1946 by J. P. Eckert and J. Mauchly. Their machine was called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). ENIAC had thousands of vacuum tubes.

The Second Generation: Transistors

The second generation of computers lasted from 1959-1964. It was a very short era. The vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors. Actually, the invention of a transistor had a huge influence on the development of electronics.

The invention of transistor allowed computer to become smaller, faster and cheaper. These computer also were more efficient and more reliable that the computers of the first generation. The first symbolic (assembly) programming languages appeared in this generation. Also, the backgrounds of high level programming languages were developed. The first versions of COBOL and FORTRAN appeared. The computer instructions storage also changed. The step from magnetic drum to magnetic core technology was made.

The Third Generation: Integrated Circuits

The invention of integrated circuits was another great step in developing semiconductor technologies. The third computer generation appeared. The third generation lasted from 1964 to 1971. The appearance of integrated circuits allowed placing miniaturized transistors on silicon chips. This technological invention allowed computers to increase speed and to become more efficient.

The human interaction with the computer had changed much in this generation. The keyboards and monitors appeared instead of punched cards and printouts. In this generation computers had first operating systems that allowed running multiple applications on the computer. It was the first time when computer became accessible to a mass audience. They become much smaller and cheaper, so the usual customer could afford them.

The Fourth Generation: Microprocessors

The appearance of a microprocessor allowed the fourth generation of computers to appear. Microprocessor is a device that has thousands of integrated circuits (millions of transistors) built in one silicon chip. The fourth generation was started by Intel 4004 chip that was developed in 1971. In 1981 IBM introduced the first computer that was dedicated to a home user. Three years later Apple introduced Macintosh. The era of mass usage of computers began. The use of microprocessors has expanded and in our days mostly all electronic devices use microprocessors or micro-controllers.

In the fourth generation the development of computer networks began. This led to invention of the Internet. Many other great things were developed during these years. Now it is very hard to imagine using computer without a mouse, GUI or other features.

The Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence

The fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

(based on: http://silwen.hubpages.com)

6. Give an accurate translation of the listed words and word combinations:

1. a limited function computer

2. an abacus

3. a slide rule

4. the goal

5. carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations

6. to evolve very rapidly

7. application capabilities

8. a vacuum tube

9. instructions storage

10. magnetic drum and magnetic core technology

11. integrated circuits

12. a semiconductor

13. punched cards and printouts

14. to run multiple applications

15. become accessible

16. mass usage

17. a computer network

18. artificial intelligence

19. voice recognition

20. to expand the use

21. to solve various problems

22. to increase speed

23. backgrounds of high level programming languages

24. the branch of computer science

25. to coin the term

7. Answer the questions:

What were the first mechanical devices that somewhat resembled a computer?

How can the word “computer” be defined?

What are the characteristic features of the first generation computers?

When did the first programming languages appear?

Did the invention of a transistor have a huge influence on the development of electronics?

How long did the third generation last?

What did the appearance of integrated circuits allow?

What led to the invention of the Internet?

What are the fifth generation computing devices based on?

Where and when was the term “Artificial Intelligence” coined?

8. Are these statements true or false?

The first mechanical devices that somewhat can be called a limited function computers appeared in the 17th century.

The main aim of every computer is to entertain us.

The second generation of computers is the era of vacuum tubes.

The computers of the first generation were not big, cheap, quick and had unlimited application capabilities.

The first symbolic (assembly) programming languages appeared in the second generation.

The appearance of integrated circuits allowed placing miniaturized transistors on aluminium chips.

Microprocessor is a device that has dozens of transistors built in one chip.

The development of computer networks led to invention of the Internet.

Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like robots.

The fourth generation was started by a keyboard that was developed in 1971.

9. Find in the text synonyms of the following words:

To evolve, an advance, to emerge, to do, to investigate, an aim, to create, quickly, large, devising, to permit, dependable, to raise, numerous, available, circumstances, an instrument, devoted, to execute, to become larger, to prompt, a program, an area.

10. Read and translate the article. Learn the words in bold type by heart:

Apple unveils iPad mini, new Macs at California event

Steve Jobs said it would never happen. Yet a smaller Apple just fell from the iPad tree.

Apple execs have finally unveiled the company's long-awaited iPad mini - something Jobs once declared the company would never do. The new $329 product is meant to compete with smaller, 7-inch tablets from companies like Google and Amazon that are nipping at the tech giant's heals.

"You knew there'd be something called Mini in this presentation," joked vice president of marketing Phil Schiller before revealing the hotly anticipated gadget. Apple has sold 84 million iPads since their debut in April 2010, he said.

"So this iPad mini is just 7.2 mm thick. That's about a quarter thinner than the fourth-generation iPad. Thinner than a pencil," CEO Tim Cook told the crowd earlier. The new product has the same resolution as the larger display 1,024 × 768, but it should look sharper thanks to the smaller screen. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard rather than a physical one. The iPad has Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity.

"You can hold it in one hand," he said. It's not just a shrunken down iPad. It's an entirely new design." Yet the new mini will run all of the software designed for the full-size siblings, he said. The mini will start with 16GB of storage at $329; a 4G model will cost an additional $129.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE IPAD

If speculation is correct, a mini iPad would follow three full-sized models. Here are Apple's iPad releases since its debut in 2010:

— the iPad, April 3, 2010. Original model (announced Jan. 27, 2010).

— the iPad 2, March 11, 2011. Faster processor, thinner. Comes with two cameras for taking photos and video chatting (announced March 2, 2011).

— the new iPad (third generation), March 16, 2012. Faster processor, much sharper screen and improved camera (announced March 7, 2012).

Cook announced an update to the iPad prior to that that he labeled a "fourth-generation" model with updated specifications. But he began the event by touting the company's success in software - especially the app store.

"We've reached another milestone — customers have downloaded 35 billion apps from the store. This is jaw dropping," Cook said.

It's the iconic hardware that Apple is known for, of course, and the company wasted no time unveiling it. Phil Schiller, senior vice president of worldwide marketing for the company, joined Cook on stage to tout the company's victories in that arena, as the pair noted that Macs are the number one desktop and notebook in the country.

To continue that momentum, Schiller revealed a new 13-inch MacBook Pro that he said is 20 percent thinner than the previous generation, and a pound lighter. The new laptop features a 2.5-GHz Intel processor, a high-resolution Retina display with over 4 million pixels, and a solid-state drive rather than a spinning disk. It will start at $1,700, he said. Schiller also described updates to the company's Mac Mini and iMacs. The new iMac, which starts at $1,299, is a razor-thin all in one computer that starts shipping next month, he said.

"There is an entire computer in here," he said, despite the product's incredibly tiny form.

"We sold more products in the June quarter than any PC manufacturer sold in their entire PC line," Cook said as he returned to the stage.

(based on: http://www.foxnews.com)

11. Find English equivalents in the text:

Планшет, наступати на пяти технічного велетня, гаряче очікувана технічна новинка, поява, роздільна здатність, мультисенсорний екран, стільниковий зв'язок, зменшений, пам'ять, випуск, поліпшена камера, модернізувати, посилено розхвалювати, рекламувати, зробити досягнення, урочисто відкривати, настільний компютер, вирізнятися, твердотільний диск, обертовий диск, дуже тонкий (як лезо), впроваджувати, неймовірно крихітний.

12. Answer the questions:

How do you understand the sentences “Yet a smaller Apple just fell from the iPad tree”, “This is jaw dropping”?

How do you understand the words execs and apps?

How thick are the tablets from companies like Google and Amazon?

How many iPads has Apple sold since April 2010?

What are the technical specifications of the new iPad mini?

What Apple's iPad releases are there?

What is another milestone that Apple has reached?

What other device described in the text is Apple known for?

13. Choose the right word:

1) The product competes/ wins with smaller tablets of other companies. 2) The new device includes/ constructs many features. 3) The article reveals/ returns the urgent problems. 4) The new gadget will be booted/ shipped next month. 5) The manufacturers/ customers will be able to buy it in spring. 6) This model has updated/ awful specifications. 7) The new notebook features/ drops a 2.5-GHz Intel processor. 8) You can get new software at the appliance/ application store. 9) I anticipate/ release the appearance of the new device.

14. Find all the samples of direct speech in the text and transform them into indirect speech:

Model: "You can hold it in one hand," he said. – He said that you could hold it in one hand.

15. What words from the article are defined? Choose an appropriate word from the databank:

Databank: an iPad, a tablet PC, execs, a pixel, a debut, a screen, an inch, a desktop PC, a mini gadget, tiny.

1) Informal for an executive; 2) a small mechanical device or appliance; 3) a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer; its touchscreen allows the user to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse; 4) the phosphorescent surface on which an image is displayed; 5) smallest resolved unit of a video image that has specific luminescence and colour; 6) a first public appearance, as of a performer; 7) a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot or 0.0254 metre; 8) denoting a computer system, esp for word processing, that is small enough to use at a desk; 9) a very popular tablet computer from Apple, introduced in April 2010; 10) very small.

16. Translate into English:

1. Компютери відіграють життєво важливу і ключову роль у повсякденному житті. Адже саме вони застосовуються для банківських операцій і нагляду за залізницями, для керування літаками й управління телекомунікаційною системою. 2. Не тільки складні обчислення важких математичних задач, але й такі щоденні речі, як купівля, реклама, організація заходу, пошук роботи, замовлення послуги можуть бути зробленими завдяки компютеру. 3. Передумови для мов програмування високого рівня були розроблені в часи другого покоління компютера. 4. Перший компютер, що містив електронні лампи, був побудований в 1946 р. Згодом електронні лампи були заміщені транзисторами, які вважаються величезним досягненням в електроніці. 5. Перехід від магнітного барабана до технології магнітного стрижня був зроблений перед тим, як зявився мікропроцесор. 6. Одночасний запуск багатьох компютерних програм забезпечується завдяки операційній системі. 7. Компютери масово використовуються з 1981-х. Саме тоді був представлений перший компютер для використання в домашніх умовах. 8. Зараз використовуються програми розпізнавання голосу, які базуються на штучному інтелекті. 9. Термін штучний інтелект придуманий у 1956 році Джоном Маккарті в Массачусетському технологічному інституті. 10. Технічні характеристики нового iPad були успішно оновлені. Саме тому зараз цей новий технічний прилад так розхвалюється на веб сторінках. Його можна тримати в одній руці й одночасно запускати різні програми, оскільки інтерфейс користувача вбудований навколо сенсорного екрана пристрою. 11. Компанія має ще одне досягнення – останнім часом покупці завантажили з магазину біля 35 мільярдів програм.

Grammar revision: Passive voice (consult Appendix 1)

17. Write past indefinite and past participle forms of the following verbs. What form is used for the formation of the passive voice?

To call, to appear, to find, to refer, to say, to fall, to build, to cost, to label, to begin, to sell, to send, to catch, to make, to write, to win, to buy, to use, to access, to take, to do, to break, to develop, to speak.

18. Read the article and underline the passive voice tenses:

A HACKER has been sent to jail for fraudulent use of credit card numbers. Nicholas Cook, 26, was arrested by police officers near a bank cashpoint last month. Eight months earlier, he had been caught copying hundreds of computer programs illegally. After an official inquiry, he was accused of software piracy and fined 5,000$. It is reported that in the last few years Cook has been sending malware (malicious software) to phone operators and attacking mobile phones to steal business and personal information. Cook has now been sentenced to three years in prison for stealing passwords and obtaining money by credit card fraud. Government officials say that new anti-hacking legislation will be introduced in the EU next year. (from Infotech English for Computer Users)

19. Complete these sentences with the present/past simple passive form of the verbs in brackets.

1. Microprocessors (make)________of silicon. 2. Call centres (not use) ________to deal with business telephone enquiries. 3. GPS (develop) _________in the 1970s as a military navigation system. 4. These applications (write) ______ through platform as a service. 5. The mechanical calculator (invent) ______ by Blaise Pascal. 6. Last year the prize (win) _______ by a team from Chernivtsi. 7. Generally, this service (use) ______ by large enterprises. 8. In 1801, Joseph-Marie Jacquard developed a loom in which the pattern being woven (control) _______ by punched cards. 9. A tablet (not design) _______ in 1990. 10. Video games (buy) ______ by teenagers.

20. Complete these sentences with the present/past continuous passive form of the verbs in brackets.

1. I had to use my laptop this morning while my PC (fix) _______. 2. These days these devices (implement) ______ by many organizations. 3. Sorry about the mess – the computers (replace) _______ at the moment. 4. I couldn’t make a hardcopy of the document, because my printer (refill) _____ then. 5. Very affordable android tablet pcs (sell) ______ with discounts right now. 6. The problems (solve) ______ by the second-year students now. 7. The promotion of the brand (do) ______ in the form of billboards now. 8. The report (write) _____ by Paul when I visited him yesterday.

21. Complete these sentences with the present/past perfect passive form of the verbs in brackets.

1. In recent years, most mobile phones (equip) ________with Bluetooth. 2. Recently several devices to store the maximum amount of information (develop) _____ in many organizations. 3. Devices (use) ______ to aid computation for thousands of years. 4. Cloud computing is the latest technology that (implement) ______ in IT industry. 5. The direct conversation with the company will make you alert that whether the system (damage) ______ because the initial faults or was it the fault of the IT Company itself. 6. After the study (do) ______, we drew a diagram. 7. The Playbook tablet (receive) _______well. 8. After he (not admit) ______ to the CNU, he tried to enter another university. 9. CSS (release) ______ in different versions with CSS3 being the latest one in its series. 10. I reported to the police that my tablet (steal)_____.

22. Complete these sentences with the future simple passive form or a modal verb+passive form of the verbs in brackets.

1. In the near future, the Internet (access) _______ more frequently from mobile phones than from desktop computers. 2. Networks can (connect) ________via satellite. 3. The specifications and options about the products ought to (understand) _____. 4. The data can (not access) ______by the multiple users. 5. According to ComScore, based on data from Morgan Stanley research, desktop users (surpass) ______ by mobile users in the nearest future. 6. Data has to (store and maintain) ______ securely for future reference. 7. Scottish mathematician and physicist John Napier noted multiplication and division of numbers could (perform) ______ by addition and subtraction, respectively, of logarithms of those numbers. 8. To run all these activities smoothly an active management should (involve) ______. 9. The photos of the new device (take) _____ for the student’s newspaper, as soon as the young scientist finishes his project. 10. If you install this app, your systems (not monitor) _____ from a remote place.

23. Rewrite these sentences using the passive.

Model: A faulty connection could cause the problems with the hard disk. – The problems with the hard disk could be caused by a faulty connection.

Bill Gates founded Microsoft.

Dennis Ritchie developed C for use in the UNIX operating systems.

Java uses a compiler.

Microprocessor uses many circuits.

Most of the IT organizations have developed new trendy innovative technologies.

Nowadays scientists are making enormous advances in computer technology.

Someone broke two system units during transportation.

The entrepreneurs launched many software companies last year.

The salesman is offering the customer a new notebook.

The system unit makes a strange noise.

They write applications in C programming language.

We were doing the homework yesterday at 6 in the evening.

We were repairing the CPU when you called me.

Web developers create new sites.

You delivered the printers over three weeks late.

You have sent us the wrong item again.

You should have delivered this consignment last week.

The virus may damage the file.

24. Make the negative and interrogative forms of the sentences.

Model: The microprocessors are made in China. – The microprocessors are not made in China. Are the microprocessors made in China?

1. The wire is made of fibre optics. 2. Samsung was founded by Steve Jobs. 3. The research has been done by this football team. 4. The work had been done, before John came. 5. The test is being written by doctors now. 6. The robot was being spoken to, when I entered the classroom. 7. The site can be accessed by a child. 8. The file will be damaged by a user. 9. The backgrounds of high level programming languages were developed in 1940s. 10. Its applications can be classified into various categories.

25. Choose the right form of the verb in Passive voice.

1. The article ….. still ….. when somebody knocked at the door.

a) had been***translated; b) was***translated; c) could be***translated; d) was being***translated.

2. The books ….. tomorrow .

a) shall be brought; b) will be brought; c) would be brought; d) will have been brought.

3. Don `t make much noise ! The students ….. now.

a) are being examined; b) have been examined; c)must be examined; d) are examined.

4. The window ….. last week.

a) broke; b) was broken; c) had been broken; d) was being broken.

5. A new stadium ….. by the end of the year.

a) will be built; b) would be built; c) will have been built; d) will be building.

6. Everything ….. before we came.

a) has been done; b) have been done; c) was done; d) had been done.

7. Why ….. she ….. ?

a) is laughed at; b) is being laughed at; c) haslaughed at; d) is laughing at.

8. He ….. nowhere yesterday.

a) wasn’t seen; b) was seen; c) hadn’t been seen; d) didn’t seen.

9. This question ….. now.

a) has been discussed; b) is discussing; c) is discussed; d) is being discussed.

10. All the exercises ….. in written form.

a) have been done; b) had been done; c) are being done; d) were doing.

11. If you ….. don’t refuse to come.

a) was sent for; b) are sent for; c) will be sent for; d) is sent for.

12. I thought the letter ….. already …..

a) has been***sent; b) was***sent; c) had been***sent; d) would be***sent.

13. I ….. by the end of June.

a) shall be examined; b) have been examined; c) shall be examining; d) shall have been examined.

14. He was sure the work ….. in time.

a) will be done; b) would have been done; c) would be done; d) should be done.

15. He ….. much …...

a) speaks of; b) are***spoken of; c) is***spoken of; d) is***speaking of.

26. Translate into English:

1. Останнім часом всі телефони обладнані камерами. 2. Приз був виграний відмінником. 3. Товари швидко продаються на розпродажі. 4. Нові відкриття робляться саме зараз. 5. В найближчому майбутньому в інтернет будуть частіше заходити через мобільні телефони чим через настільні компютери. 6. Я заявив в поліцію, що мій планшет був вкраденим, а камера зломана. 7. Мікропроцесори виготовляються з силікону чи з оптоволокна? 8. Домашня робота виконувалася нами вчора о 6 вечора. 9. Чому був створений компютер? 10. Файл




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