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Note concepts nd thus to clssify individul objects into groups clsses

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Lexical stylistic devices based on interaction of logical and nominal meaning and 2 lexical meaning.  Antonomasia, Simile.

Antonomasia is a lexical stylistic device in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice versa. Logical meaning serves to denote concepts and thus to classify individual objects into groups (classes). The nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its logical meaning and acquires the new - nominal - component. Nominal meaning has no classifying power for it applies to one single individual object with the aim not of classifying it constituting a definite group, but, on the contrary with the aim of singling it out of the group of similar objects, of individualizing one particular object. The word "Mary" does not indicate if the denoted object refers to the class of women, girls, boats, cats, etc. But in example: "He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary, something..." the attribute "each", used with the name, turns it into a common noun denoting any woman. Here we deal with a case of antonomasia of the first type.
Another type of antonomasia we meet when a common noun is still clearly perceived as a proper name. So, no speaker of English today has it in his mind that such popular English surnames as Mr.Smith or Mr.Brown used to mean occupation and the color. While such names as Mr.Snake or Mr.Backbite immediately raise associations with certain human qualities due to the denotational meaning of the words "snake" and "backbite".
Antonomasia is created mainly by nouns, more seldom by attributive combinations (as in "Dr.Fresh Air") or phrases (as in "Mr.What's-his-name').

 Simile is a figure of speech in which the subject is compared to another subject. By means of the comparison the objects are characterized. 
The formal elements of a simile are 
like, as, as if, as though, such as, seem, etc.
1. ‘A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle’.
2. She 
seemed nothing more than a doll.
3. Maidens, 
like moths are ever caught by glare.
          Sometimes the simile-forming 
like is placed at the end of the phrase:
‘Emily Barton was very pink, and looked a Dresden-china-shepherdess like.’
          In the English language there is a long list of hackneyed similes, which are not genuine similes any more but have become 
cliches:
Faithful as a dog; to work as a horse; stubborn as a mule; slow as a tortoise; busy as a bee; hungry as a bear; to swim like a fish and many others of the same type.




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