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Subject mtter is Sound System which is set of phonetics units rrnged in n orderly wy to replce ech other in given frmework

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                                                           Билет № 6  

  1.  Phonetic System of English
  2.  Positional distinctions of Word Stress in English  
  3.  Comment on the Intonation Patterns of the following phrases:

       It seemed a fascinating idea.               He seemed to lose heart in the business.                                               

                                              Good morning, Dr. Manson. 

1. Phonetic system of English, its role and functions.

The subject matter is Sound System, which is a set of phonetics units arranged in an orderly way to replace each other in a given framework. The Sound System consists of 4 components: speech sounds, syllabic structure, word stress and intonation.

1) Speech sounds or segmental phonemes existing in the material form of their allophones. This phonetic component has 3 aspects:

  1.  The system of its phonemes as discrete (обособленные) isolated units
  2.  The distribution (распределение) of the allophones of the phonemes
  3.  The methods of joining speech sounds together in words.

2) Syllabic structure has 2 aspects: syllabic formation and syllabic division.

3) Word stress as an accentual structure of English words has 3 aspects:

  1.  The physical (acoustic) nature of word accent
  2.  The position of the accent in disyllabic and polysyllabic words
  3.  The degree of word stress

4) Intonation connects with meaning, emotions, thoughts, intonational structure of utterances.

These components of the Sound System constitute the English pronunciation. Every member of the system is determined by all the other members, doesn’t exist or function in isolation.

All the components of the Phonetic system are to be analyzed from the following 4 aspects:

1) Articulatory – the way the sound-producing mechanisms are investigated, that is the way the speech sounds are pronounced.

2) Acoustic – speech sounds is a physical phenomenon. It exists in the form of sound waves produced by the vocal cords. Thus each sound is characterized by frequency (herts; the number of vibrations), intensity (loudness, decibels) and duration (length).

3) Auditory – sound perception aspect. The listener hears the sound, percepts its acoustic features and the hearing mechanism selects and transfers them into linguistically important speech sounds.

4) Functional aspect – every language unit performs a certain function in actual speech. It can differentiate the meaning of the words and their grammatical forms.     

2.  Positional distinctions of word accent in English.

The English accent is considered to be free. Different words stress falls upon different syllables. Fixed accent – has a tendency to stress the same syllable in all the words, like in French.

“Freedom” of English word stress is restricted limed by two tendencies – recessive and rhythmical.

Recessive tendency is defined by the words of the Germanic layer/origin: short one-syllable or two-syllable words.

1. stress falls upon the first syllable – the root of the word (window, husband )

2. accent falls upon the second syllable (the root) of the words with prefixes of no referential meaning (lost referential meaning) for’get, be’for, a’mong

Rhythmic tendency is connected with the words of the Romanic layer ( Norman or Old French ) in the English stock of words.

Most French borrowing words are long polysyllabic words with stress on the last syllable.   ar,ticu’lation

Secondary stress is used for the sake of English rhythm.

Retentive tendency consists in the retention of the primary accent on the parent word, e.g. person- personal / ‘peisn –‘ p :s nl/. More commonly it is retained in the parent word. As a secondary accent, e.g. similar – similarity / ‘simil -similaeriti/.

Semantic factor. It can be observed in compound words and according to this factor the most important part of the compound is usually stressed. It is as a rule, the first element of the compound, e.g. ‘bluebottle, ‘booking office, ‘buttonhole, musical box, fire extinguisher, etc.

  1.  Comment on the Intonation Patterns of the following phrases:

       It seemed a fascinating idea.               He seemed to lose heart in the business.                                               

                                              Good morning, Dr. Manson. 




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