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Requires energy TP moves mterils from low to high concentrtion ~

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EXAM 2013-14y.

1. Requires energy (ATP), moves materials from low to high concentration –

A. active transport

B. simple diffusion

C. facilitated diffusion

D. passive transport

E. osmosis

2. Materials move down their concentration gradient through the phospholipid bilayer-

A. active transport

B. simple diffusion

C. facilitated diffusion

D. passive transport

E. osmosis

3. The passage of materials is aided both by a concentration gradient and by a transport protein

A. active transport

B. simple diffusion

C.facilitated diffusion

D. passive transport

E. osmosis

4. Molecules again move through a transport protein, but now energy must be expended to move them against there concentration gradient. (uses ATP)

A. active transport

B. simple diffusion

C. facilitated diffusion

D. passive transport

E. osmosis

5. This does not require any energy, it moves molecules from an area where they are in high concentration to an area where they are in lower concentration-

A. active transport

B. simple diffusion

C. facilitated diffusion

D. passive transport

E. osmosis

6. How many layers is the cell membrane/plasma membrane made up of?

  •  A. 2 layers of phospholipid molecules
  •  B. 3 layers of phospholipid molecules
  •  C. 4 layers of phospholipid molecules
  •  D. 5 layers of phospholipid molecules
  •  E. 6 layers of phospholipid molecules

7.  Most common type of molecule in the cell membrane-

A. Phospholipids

B. protein molecules

C. Peripheral membrane proteins

D. integral membrane proteins

E. ions of Na

8.  What molecules are embedded within the phospholipids layers (these are very important carrier molecules, they carry or transport things into and out of the cell)-

A. Phospholipids

B.protein molecules

C.Peripheral membrane proteins

D.integral membrane proteins

E. ions of Na

9. These are embedded on only one side of the membrane they do not go though the whole thing –

A. Phospholipids

B. protein molecules

C.Peripheral membrane proteins

D. integral membrane proteins

E. ions of Na

10. These are the importnat carrier molecules in a plasma membrane because they have a hole or pore in the middle which goes completely through the middle and allows molecules to leave or enter through this hole -

A. Phospholipids

B. protein molecules

C.  membrane proteins

D. integral membrane proteins

E. ions of Na

11. Which of the following describes the fluid-mosaic model of the plasma membrane structure?

A. phospholipid monolayer with embedded proteins
B. phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
C. phospholipid trilayer with embedded proteins
D. triglyceride bilayer with embedded proteins
E. triglyceride monolayer with embedded proteins

12. Sodium and potassium ions are transported across the plasma membrane by a ______ protein.

A. ell-recognition

B. channel

C. carrier

D. receptor

E. enzymatic

13. Pinocytosis is a type of ______.

A. endocytosis

B. exocytosis

C. active transport

D. simple diffusion

E. facilitated diffusion

14.  ______ is the net movement of any type of molecule from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

A. Osmosis

B. Diffusion

C. Facilitated diffusion

D. Active transport

E. Pinocytosis

15. Crystals of dye, when placed in a beaker of water, eventually spread evenly throughout the water. This is an example of ______.

A. pinocytosis

B. phagocytosis

C. osmosis

D. facilitated diffusion

E. simple diffusion

16. The diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane is called ______.

A. simple diffusion

B. facilitated diffusion

C. osmosis

D. exocytosis

E. endocytosis

17. Which type of solution will have the same solute concentration on both sides of the cell membrane?

A. isotonic

B. hypertonic

C. hypotonic

D. hygrotonic solution

E. simple sugars

18. Which type of solution will have a higher percentage of solute than the cell?

A. isotonic solution

B. hypotonic solution

C. hypertonic solution

D. hygrotonic solution

E. simple sugars

19. Which type of solution has a lower percentage of solute than the cell?

A. isotonic solution

B. hypotonic solution

C. hypertonic solution

D. hygrotonic solution

E. simple sugars

20. 3 ответа Which of these does not require the expenditure of energy?

A. active transport

B. simple diffusion

C. active potential

D. passive transport

E. osmosis

21. An animal cell will always take in water when placed in a…..

a. hypertonic solution
b. osmotic solution
c. isotonic solution
d. hypotonic solution

e. suspended solids

22. Which of the following substances is taken in by pinocytosis?

a. dissolved gases
b. proteins
c. simple sugars
d. ionic salts
e. suspended solids

23. According to the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane,

a. proteins are scattered throughout a double layer of phospholipid.
b. proteins are sandwiched between two layers of cellulose.
c. phospholipids are sandwiched between two layers of protein
d. phospholipids are scattered throughout a double layer of protein.

E. triglyceride monolayer with embedded proteins

24. The active transport and facilitative transport  has difference

a. +active transport requires ATP
b. facilitated transport requires ATP
c. active transport uses carrier molecules
d. facilitated transport uses carrier molecules

E. facilitated transport uses receptor molecules

25. The control of materials that enter or leave the cell is a function of the…..

a. vacuole
b. cell wall
c. Golgi body
d. cell membrane

E. proteins

26. What is the outer boundary of the cell?

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. nuclear membrane
D. endoplasmic reticulum

E. proteins

27. Which of the following statements is NOT correct about the phospholipid molecules in the plasma membrane?

A. The polar heads face outward.

B. The nonpolar tails face inward.

C. The polar heads are hydrophobic.

D. The nonpolar tails are hydrophobic.

E. The phospholipids form a bilayer.

28. Active transport

A. requires energy.
B. can only move molecules down their concentration gradient.
C. does not require proteins.
D. can only move molecules against their concentration gradient.

E.  providing high energy electrons.

29. The energy stored in ATP is used to drive the sodium-potassium pump by

A. contributing direct heat energy to drive the pump.
B. phosphorylating the transport protein to change its configuration.
C. directly pushing the sodium and potassium ions against their respective gradients.
D. providing high energy electrons.

E. does not require proteins


30. In the case of the sodium-potassium pump, when there is no ATP available, we would expect   

     to find that

A. sodium ions were still being pumped out of the cell.
B. potassium ions were still binding to the transport protein.
C. the transport protein was still being phosphorylated.
D. sodium ions were still binding to the transport protein.

E. Cl ions were still being pumped out of the cell.

31. Cells in a fish's gills pump out salt even though the salt water the fish lives in has a greater concentration of salts than the cells themselves do. What process do these cells use to remove the salt?

A. active transport

B. facilitated diffusion

C. diffusion

D. osmosis

E. dynamic equilibrium

32. What is the random movement of ions and other particles?

A. transportation

B. activation energy

C. dynamic equilibrium

D. diffusion

E. Na and K

33. Which of these transport mechanisms requires an input of energy from a cell?

A. diffusion

B. facilitated diffusion

C. osmosis

D. active transport

E. dynamic equilibrium

34. What is the diffusion of water into and out of cells?

A. +osmosis

B. active transport

C. passive transport

D. plasma movement

E. facilitated diffusion

35. How does a particle, such as an ion, that is too large to squeeze through the plasma membrane, get into the cell?

A. by active transport

B. by facilitated diffusion

C. by passive transport

D. by osmosis

E. by phagocytosis

36. In phagocytosis and pinocytosis, the plasma membrane brings in materials by forming a _________.

A. cell wall

B. vesicle

C. transport protein

D. lamella

E. sodium ions

37.  …….is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body

A. Electrocardiography

B. Electroencephalography

C. electromyography

D.Ophthalmic rheography

E. Rheogepatography

38. ……… is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp.

A. Electrocardiography

B.Electroencephalography

C. electromyography

D.Ophthalmic rheography

E. Rheogepatography

39.  Neuronal firing: …..

1. the action potential

2. the Resting Potential

3. active transport

4. facilitated diffusion

5. diffusion

40. There is an electrical charge across the membrane.

1. the action potential

2. the Resting Potential

3. active transport

4. facilitated diffusion

5. diffusion

41. Method of evaluating the heart electrical activity based on recording the strength and  timing of  electrical signals as they pass through the heart:

  1.  Electrocardiography
  2.  Electroencephalography
  3.  Electromyography
  4.  Ophthalmic rheography
  5.  Rheogepatography

42. Method of researching the activity and state of the brain based on recording the gross electrical activity between two electrodes placed on the scalp of a patient:

  1.  Electrocardiography
  2.  Electroencephalography
  3.  Electromyography
  4.  Ophthalmic rheography
  5.  Rheogepatography

43. The …………. is a recording of the electrical activity of the brain from the scalp.

  1.  Electrocardiogram
  2.  electroencephalogram
  3.  Electromyogram
  4.  Ophthalmic rheogram
  5.  Rheogepatogram

44. Method is used for the researching of normal and violated functioning of motor apparatus:

  1.  Electrocardiography
  2.  Electroencephalography
  3.  Electromyography
  4.  Ophthalmic rheography
  5.  Rheogepatography

45. Method of researching the blood circulation in vessels system of the eyeball:

  1.  Electrocardiography
  2.  Electroencephalography
  3.  Electromyography
  4.  Ophthalmic rheography
  5.  Rheogepatography

46. Method is based on the registration of resistance changing area of the researching part of eye at the transmission of the altering current:

  1.  Electrocardiography
  2.  Ophthalmic rheography
  3.  Electroencephalography
  4.  Electromyography
  5.  Rheogepatography

47. Normal heart rate is …… heartbeats per minute.

A. 60-90

B. 50-60

С.40-50

D. 60-70

E. 70-80

48. If an abnormal heart rate – more than 90 heartbeats per minute

A. Tachycardia

B.  Bradycardia

C.  Anemia

D. Ischemia

E.  myocardial infarction

49. If  an abnormal heart rate – less than 60 heartbeats per minute.

A. Tachycardia

B. Bradycardia

C.  Anemia

D. Ischemia

E.  myocardial infarction

50. The …………. measures the activity of large numbers (populations) of  neurons:

  1.  Electrocardiography
  2.  Electroencephalography
  3.  Electromyography
  4.  Ophthalmic rheography
  5.  Rheogepatography

51. … – rhythm - brain is aroused and actively engaged in mental activities (15-40 Hz).

A. β

B. α

C. θ

D. δ

E. Gamma

52. …– rhythm – represents non-arousal, it appears during wakeful relaxation with closed eyes (9-14 Hz).

A. β

B. α

C. θ

D. δ

E. Gamma

53. … – rhythm – predominates during the daydreaming. It promotes the deep relaxation of brain, memory, perception of information (5-8 Hz).

A. β

B. α

C. θ

D. δ

E. Gamma

54. …. – rhythm – appears at the very deep natural dreaming also at narcotic and coma dreaming (1,5-4 Hz).          

A. β

B. α

C. θ

D. +δ

E. Gamma

55. А method used to study the filling of a part of the body with blood by graphically recording the fluctuations in the resistance of that part of the body

А. Rheography 

  1.  Electroencephalography
  2.  Electromyography
  3.  Electrocardiography
  4.  UHF-therapy

56. Electrocardiography is based on:

  1.  Einthoven theory
  2.  Faraday's theory
  3.  Doppler phenomenon
  4.  Peltier  phenomenon
  5.  Einstein's theory

57.  Which of ECG intervals has the greatest time (in seconds):

  1.  PQ
  2.  QRS 
  3.  RR 
  4.  ST  
  5.  QT

58. It’s a graphic method of researching the liver’s blood circulation that is based on registration the fluctuations of liver tissue’s electrical resistance during the passage of high-frequent current through it.

  1.  Rheohepatography
  2.  Electrocardiography
  3.  Ophthalmic rheography
  4.  Electroencephalography
  5.  Electromyography

59. ……… records the changes of electrical conductivity of the human body caused by the

blood flow and is practically applicable to any part of the body

  1.  Electrocardiography
  2.  Electroencephalography
  3.  Electromyography
  4.  Rheography
  5.  UHF-therapy

60. Method of electrotherapy, which is based on application of alternating current of high-frequency, high tension and small strength of current

А. Darsonvalization

В. Ultratontherapy

С. Inductotermia

D.  UHF-Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

61. Application alternating  sinusoidic current of high-frequency, high tension with initial power to 10 WT with the medical purpose

А. Darsonvalization

В. Ultratontherapy

С. Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

62.   It is high-frequency variable magnetic field action, which caused warmly production in tissues

А. Darsonvalization

В. Ultratontherapy

С. Inductotermia

D.  UHF-Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

63. Influence by the magnetic field of ultra high frequency on patients tissues

А. Darsonvalization

В. Ultratontherapy

С. Inductotermia

D. UHF-Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

64. Influence by the variable electric field (in a less measure magnetic) of ultrahigh frequency on the patients organism

А. Darsonvalization

В. Ultratontherapy

С. Inductotermia

D. UHF-Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

65. Method of electrotherapy, which is based on influencing of high-frequency electromagnetic vibrations with a wave-length from 1 mm  to 1 m

А. Darsonvalization

В. Microwave therapy

С. Inductotermia

D. UHF-Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

66. Method of use for medicinal purposes of the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency

(UHF 40.68MHz and 27.12 MHz), in which the electric component dominates the magnetic one.

А. Darsonvalization

В. Microwave therapy

С. Inductotermia

D. UHF-Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

67.   Application of constant direct electric current of small force (to 50 мА)  and low tension (30-80V) with the medical purpose

А. Galvanization

В. Microwave therapy

С. Inductotermia

D. UHF-Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

68.   Introduction of medicines in human body with the help of a direct current

А. +Medicinal electrophoresis

 В. Microwave therapy

С.   Inductotermia

D. UHF-Inductotermia

E. UHF-therapy

69.  Method where by charged molecules in solution, chiefly proteins and nucleic acids, migrate in response to an electrical field

А. +Electrophoresis

 В. Microwave therapy

С.  Inductotermia

D.  UHF-Inductotermia

E.  UHF-therapy

70.  .….. is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress.

A. Viscosity

B.  pressure

C. velocity

D.  Mass

E.  time

71.  Poiseuille’s Law.

A.

В.

C.     

 D.

E.

72. The fluid property that measures the resistance of the fluid to deforming due  to  a  shear  force -

A. Viscosity

B.  pressure

C. velocity

D.  Mass

E.  time

73. ……flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers

A. Laminar

B. turbulent

C. transient

D. non constant 

E. noisy

74. Reynolds number is

A.2300

B.3000

C.3500

D.1300

E. 500

75. In …… flow vortices, eddies and wakes make the flow unpredictable. ……. flow happens in general at high flow rates and with larger pipes.

A. Laminar

B. turbulent

C. transient

D. homogeneous

E. smooth

76. …… flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow, with turbulence in the center of the pipe, and laminar flow near the edges

A. Laminar

B. turbulent

C.transient

D. smooth

E. homogeneous

77. The flow is laminar when

A. Re < 2300

B. 2300<Re<4000

C. 4000<Re

D. Re =3000

E. Re = 2700

78.  The flow is turbulent when

A. Re < 2300

B. 2300<Re<4000

C. 4000<Re

D. Re =1000

E. Re = 2000

79. The flow is transient when

A. Re < 2300

B. 2300<Re<4000

C. 4000<Re

D. Re =1000

E. Re = 2000

80. The flow of blood through the vessels is:
A. always laminar
B. always turbulent
C. predominantly laminar and only in some cases the turbulent
D. mostly turbulent and only in some cases laminar.

E. only turbulent


81. Bernulli’s Law

А.

В.

C.

 D.

E.

82. Newton’ Law for liquids

A.

В.

C.

 D.

E.

83. Reynolds Law

A.

В.

C.

 D.

E.

84. A type of chemiluminescence that occurs in living organisms:

  1.  bioluminescence
  2.  Crystalloluminescence
  3.  Electroluminescence
  4.  Photoluminescence
  5.  Radioluminescence

85. Occurs when an  exothermic chemical  reaction releases energy to generate electromagnetic radiation which gives off light:

  1.  chemiluminescence
  2.  Crystalloluminescence
  3.  Sonoluminescence
  4.  Photoluminescence
  5.  Radioluminescence

86. Energy excitation from electron beam:

  1.  Cathodoluminescence
  2.  Crystalloluminescence
  3.  Sonoluminescence
  4.  Photoluminescence
  5.  Radioluminescence

87. Radiative transition between electronic states with the same multiplicity (10-10 – 10-6 sec.):

  1.  Fluorescence
  2.  Crystalloluminescence
  3.  Sonoluminescence
  4.  Phosphorescence
  5.  Radioluminescence

 

88. Radiative transition between electronic states of different multiplicities. (10-4 – 104 sec)

  1.  Fluorescence
  2.  Sonoluminescence
  3.  Phosphorescence
  4.  Radioluminescence
  5.  Crystalloluminescence

89. In what department of the vascular bed of the linear velocity of blood flow is minimal?
A) in the aorta
B) in the arteries
C) in arterioles
D) in the capillaries
E) in the veins

90. Which department has the largest vascular bed hydraulic resistance?
A) aorta
B) artery
C) arterioles
D) capillaries
E) veins

91.  The elasticity of blood vessels has the electrical equivalent of:
A)  potential
B)  resistance
C)  capacity
D)  inductance
E)  current

92.  The pressure distribution in the vascular system obeys the law:
A) Bernulle
B) Frank
C) Einthoven
D) Einstein

E. Newton

93. The model describes the temporal changes in pressure and flow rate of blood flow has been proposed:
A) Frank
B) Goldmann
C) Poiseuille
D) Einthoven
E) by Maxwell

94.  What is a carrier?

A. a molecule in the membrane that combines with a substance to be transported through the      membrane
B. a special type of organelle
C. a molecule that moves in and out of the membrane through a pore
D. a special type of membrane

E. a special type of ions

95.  Cell drinking is synonomous with

A. cell eating
B. endocytosis
C. phagocytosis
D. pinocytosis

E. osmosis

96. Which of the following is actively transported across the cell membranes?

a. carbon dioxide
b. oxygen
c. water
d. sodium

E. crystals

97. The rate of diffusion in a system could be increased by

a. increasing the concentration gradient and decreasing the size of the molecules
b. decreasing the concentration gradient and increasing the size of the molecules
c. increasing the concentration gradient and increasing the size of the molecules
d. decreasing the concentration gradient and decreasing the size of the molecules

E. increasing the concentration Cl

98. Endocytosis is an example of

a. passive transport, substances are moved into the cell
b. active transport, substances are moved out of the cell
c. passive transport, substances are moved out of the cell
d. active transport, substances are moved into the cell

E. osmosis

99. The difference between active transport and facilitative transport is that

a. active transport requires ATP
b. facilitated transport requires ATP
c. active transport uses carrier molecules
d. facilitated transport uses carrier molecules

E. provides mechanical shape

100. A particular protein was identified in the plasma membrane to cause organ transplant rejection. Such a protein is considered to be a(an) ______ protein.

A. carrier

B. channel

C. cell-recognition

D. receptor

E. enzymatic

101. A ______ protein allows a particular molecule or ion to freely cross the plasma membrane as it enters or exits the cell.

A. cell-recognition

B. carrier

C. receptor

D. enzymatic

E. channel

102. A ______ protein combines with a substance and helps to move it across the membrane.

A. carrier

B. channel

C. cell-recognition

D. receptor

E. enzymatic

103. A ______ protein has a specific shape such that only a particular molecule can bind to it.

A. enzymatic

B.receptor

C. cell-recognition

D. channel

E. carrier

104. Sodium and potassium ions are transported across the plasma membrane by a ______ protein.

A. cell-recognition

B. channel

C. carrier

D. receptor

E. enzymatic

105.  Which statement best describes the plasma membrane?

A. It is freely permeable to all substances.

B.It is selectively permeable to certain substances.

C. It is nonpermeable to all substances.

D.Small noncharged molecules easily cross the membrane.

E. Lipid molecules have little difficulty in crossing the plasma membrane.

106. Which of the following statements is NOT correct about the plasma membrane?

A. Small noncharged molecules easily cross the membrane.

B. Lipid molecules have little difficulty in crossing the plasma membrane.

C. Negatively charged ions tend to move from inside the cell to outside the cell.

D. Positively charged ions tend to move from outside the cell to inside the cell.

E. Positive charges are usually on the inside and negative charges on the outside.

107. Which of the following is NOT an active means where molecules pass across the plasma membrane?

A. simple diffusion

B. active transport

C. endocytosis

D. exocytosis

E. osmosis

108. Pinocytosis is a type of ______.

A.endocytosis

B. exocytosis

C. active transport

D. simple diffusion

E. facilitated diffusion

109. ______ is the net movement of any type of molecule from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

A. Osmosis

B. Diffusion

C. Facilitated diffusion

D. Active transport

E. Pinocytosis

110. Which of the following conditions does NOT apply to diffusion?

A. Diffusion continues even after the molecules are distributed equally.

B. Diffusion is a physical process.

C. Diffusion is a passive process.

D. Molecules move from higher to lower concentration.

E. Diffusion does not necessarily require a membrane.

111.  Oxygen enters the blood from the alveoli in the lungs by the process of ______.

A. phagocytosis

B. active transport

C. osmosis

D. diffusion

E. facilitated diffusion

112.  Water passes into and out of cells through the ______.

A. phospholipid bilayer

B. water carrier proteins

C. special water channel proteins

D. water receptor proteins

E. cell-recognition proteins

113. The diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane is called ______.

A. simple diffusion

B. facilitated diffusion

C. osmosis

D. exocytosis

E. endocytosis

114. Which type of pressure is responsible for the maintenance of a plant's erect position?

A. turgor pressure

B. osmotic pressure

C. active transport pressure

D. pinocytotic pressure

E. plasmolysis

115. Why are proteins involved in active transport often called "pumps"?

A. They use energy to move a substance against its concentration  gradient.

B. They use energy to move a substance with its concentration gradient.

C. They use energy to bind the substance to the carrier.

D. They use energy to dislodge the substance from the carrier.

E. They cause the plasma membrane to invaginate like a pump that pulls up water against the force of gravity.

116. Which of the following conditions does NOT apply to facilitated transport?

A. requires specific carrier proteins

B. transports molecules down the concentration gradient

C. requires the expenditure of energy

D. transports molecules from one side of the membrane to the other side

E. transports molecules through the membrane much faster than simple diffusion

117. Which of the following processes uses a carrier protein and ATP?

A. simple diffusion

B. osmosis

C. facilitated diffusion

D. active transport

E. endocytosis

118. Which of the following conditions does NOT apply to active transport?

A. requires ATP

B. transports molecules from a high to low concentration area

C. requires a carrier protein

D. carrier proteins bind reversibly to transported substances

E. transports molecules through the membrane much faster than simple diffusion

119. Which process will transport sodium ions to the outside of the cell and potassium ions to the inside of the cell?

A. simple diffusion

B. facilitated diffusion

C. osmosis

D. active transport

E. pinocytosis

120. The sodium-potassium pump is considered to be a(an) ______ process.

A. simple diffusion

B. facilitated diffusion

C. osmosis

D. pinocytotic

E. active transport

121. The passage of salt (Na+Cl-) across a plasma membrane is of primary importance in cells. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

A. Sodium ions are first pumped across the membrane.

B. Chloride ions then diffuse through a channel toward the sodium ions.

C. The negatively charged chloride ions are attracted toward the positively charged sodium ions.

D. Chloride ions are first pumped across the membrane and then the sodium ions diffuse through a channel.

E. Potassium and organic anions inside the cell

122. Which of the following processes does NOT use a carrier protein to transport substances across the plasma membrane?

A. active transport

B. facilitated diffusion

C. osmosis

D. sodium-potassium pump

E. Sodium ions are first pumped across the membrane.

123. Which of the following transport processes will form a vesicle?

A. diffusion

B. facilitated diffusion

C. osmosis

D. active transport

E.phagocytosis

124. Which process is sometimes called cell drinking?

A. pinocytosis

B. phagocytosis

C. exocytosis

D. endocytosis

E. active transport

125. Which of the following processes can be seen with the light microscope?

A. active transport

B. pinocytosis

C. phagocytosis

D. osmosis

E. facilitated diffusion

126. The process by which a vesicle is formed at the plasma membrane to bring substances into the cell is called ______.

A. endocytosis

B. exocytosis

C. plasmolysis

D. hemolysis

E. crenation

127. Which of the following comparisons is NOT correct?

A. endocytosis--entering by sac

B. exocytosis--leaving by sac

C. active transport--against the gradient

D. facilitated diffusion--with the gradient

E. hypotonic solution--cells shrivel

128. What Kind of Microscope uses electrons (shorter wavelengths than light)
A. Electron Microscopy

B. light Microscopy

C. Fluorescence Microscopy

D. Atomic Force Microscopy

E. Brightfield Illumination

129. What Kind of Microscope uses UV light
A. Electron Microscopy

B. light Microscopy

C. Fluorescence Microscopy

D. Atomic Force Microscopy

E. Brightfield Illumination

130. What Kind of Microscope uses a metal and diamond probe inserted into the specimen
A.Electron Microscopy

B. light Microscopy

C.Fluorescence Microscopy

D. Atomic Force Microscopy

E. Brightfield Illumination

131. What Kind of Microscope uses Dark objects are visible against a bright background
A. Electron Microscopy

B. light Microscopy

C. Fluorescence Microscopy

D. Atomic Force Microscopy

E. Brightfield Illumination

132. What Kind Of Microscope uses -  Accentuates diffraction of the light that passes through a specimen

A.Phase Contrast

B. light Microscopy

C. Fluorescence Microscopy

D. Atomic Force Microscopy

E. Brightfield Illumination

133. The emission of electrons from a surface (usually metallic) upon exposure to, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation-

A. The photoelectric effect

B. diffraction

C. reflection

D. ultraviolet catastrophe

E. Electric current

134.What is another name for channel proteins?

A. cell wall

B. vesicle

C. stomata

D. pores

E.  enzymatic

135. Which of these is NOT a kind of endocytosis?

A.exocytosis

B. phagocytosis

C. pinocytosis

D. receptor-aided endocytosis

E. enzymatic

136. In the plasma membrane (In phagocytosis and pinocytosis) brings in materials by forming a

A. cell wall

B. vesicle

C. transport protein

D lamella

E. enzymatic

137. Besides phospholipids, what other substances make up the plasma membrane?

A.vitamins

B.membrane proteins

C.cytoplasm

D.membrane carbohydrates

E. enzymatic

138. The random movement of ions and other particles -

A. transportation

B.activation energy

C.dynamic equilibrium

D.diffusion

E.osmosis

139. The transport mechanisms requires an input of energy from a cell -

A. diffusion

B.facilitated diffusion

C.osmosis

D.active transport

E. simple diffusion

140. Which of these statements is NOT part of the cell theory?

A.All cells live in a fluid environment

B.The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in organisms

C.All organisms are composed of one or more cells or cell fragments

D.All cells are produced from other cells.

E. phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins

141. How does a particle, such as an ion, that is too large to squeeze through the plasma membrane, get into the cell?

A. by active transport

B. by osmosis

C. by passive transport

D. by facilitated diffusion

E. by simple diffusion

142. What is the diffusion of water into and out of cells?

 

A. osmosis

B. active transport

C. passive transport

D. plasma movement

E. facilitated diffusion

143. Myelin has the following function-

A.It helps increase the speed at which an action potential travels.
B. It prevents the neuron from heating up after an action potential.
C. Neurotransmitters are synthesized in the myelin.
D. Myelin has no known function.
E. The voltage-gated sodium channels that underlie an action potential are located in the myelin.

144. How long does a neural impulse last?

A. 2-3 milliseconds

B. 3-5 milliseconds

C. 5-7 milliseconds

D. 7-9 milliseconds

E. 9-12 milliseconds

145.   

 With out any energy input is what type of transport in the cell

A.

Passive Transport

B.

Active Transport

C.

Osmosis

D.

Plasymolysis

E.

Turgor Pressure

146.  

Diffision is the simplest type of passive transport because its is the movement of molecules from an area of ________ to __________ concentration.

A.

lower to higher

B.

Equal to equal

C.

lower to lower

D.

higher to lower

E.

no where land

147. In diffusion the molecules move _________ the concentration gradient.

A.

up

B.

across

C.

over

D.

down

E.

under

148.  

Some ion channels are always open but some have "________".

A.

roads

B.

gates

C.

bars

D.

crosses

E.

passages

149. The electromagnetic radiation (not seen by an eye), occupying spectral area between visible and x-ray radiations within lengths of waves (400 — 10) nm:

A. +Ultraviolet light

B. infrared light

C. sound waves

D. radio waves

E. magnetic fields

150. Invisible radiation which is capable to get into all substances. It represents electromagnetic radiation with length of a wave about 10-8 sm.:

A. Ultraviolet light

B. infrared light

C. sound waves

D. radio waves

E. X-ray radiation

151. This method of diagnostics consists in photography of the shadow image from the appearing-through screen.

A.Fluorography

B. Electroencephalography

C. electromyography

D.Ophthalmic rheography

E. Rheogepatography

152. The first standard lead aligned recording electrodes:

  1.  on the right and left hands
  2.  on the right arm and left leg
  3.   on the left leg and left arm
  4.  on the right leg and right arm
  5.  the right and left legs

153. The second standard lead aligned recording electrodes:

  1.  on the right and left hands
  2.   the right arm and left leg
  3.   on the left leg and left arm
  4.  on the right leg and right arm
  5.  the right and left legs

154. The third standard lead aligned recording electrodes:

  1.  on the right and left hands
  2.  on the right arm and left leg
  3.  on the left leg and left arm
  4.  on the right leg and right arm
  5.  the right and left legs

155.  Units of measure dynamic viscosity:

  1.  V
  2.  Pa · sec
  3.  F
  4.  Hz
  5.  m/s

156. Relativity viscosity of human’s blood:

  1.  4-5
  2.  8-10
  3.  10-15
  4.  1- 4
  5.  0-15

157. How much blood is in the human body?

A.About 5 liters

B. About 1 liters

C. About 2 liters

D. About 3 liters

E. About 10 liters

158.First compound microscope was created in …

  1.  1590
  2.  1595
  3.  1566
  4.  1655
  5.  1609

159.Who first used first compound microscope and observe pores in cork?

  1.  A. Leeuwenhook
  2.  G. Faber
  3.  Z. Janssen
  4.  +R. Hooke
  5.  H. Lippershey

160.Main part of the microscope which connects the eyepiece to the objective

  1.  Ocular
  2.  Tube
  3.  Base
  4.  Turret
  5.  Fine focus

161.What does mean word ‘scope’?

  1.  Small
  2.  Large
  3.  Look
  4.  Analyze
  5.  Discover

162.How many types of microscope separate based on interacts with the sample to generate the image?

  1.  1
  2.  2
  3.  3
  4.  4
  5.  5

163.Give determination to “work distance”

  1.  Distance between the front surface of lens and surface of cover glass  specimen
  2.  Distance between arm and body tube
  3.  Distance between light source and objectives
  4.  Distance between stage and objectives
  5.  Distance between base and ocular

164. Focus light rays at a specific place called the…

  1.  Focal distance
  2.  Focal length
  3.  Focal point
  4.  Focal resolution
  5.  Focal wavelength

165.Ability of a lens to separate small objectives that are close together…

  1.  Microscope focusing
  2.  Microscope wavelength
  3.  Microscope resolution
  4.  Microscope magnification
  5.  Microscope refraction

166.Distance between center of lens and focal point is the…

  1.  Focus light rays
  2.  Focal length
  3.  Focal point
  4.  Focal resolution
  5.  Focal distance

167.What kind of microscope’s resolution is limited by the wavelength of the

radiation used to image the sample?

A) Transition electron microscope

B) Scanning microscope

C) Scanning probe microscope

D) Electroscope

E) Confocal microscope

168.Which microscope use sun waves to measure variation?

A) Optical microscope

B) Scanning acoustic microscope

C) Scanning microscope

D) Co focal microscope

E) Electron microscope

169.What kind of microscope does NOT USE electromagnetic or electrons radiation?

A) Electron microscope
B) Optical microscope
C) Co focal microscope
D)  Scanning probe microscope
E) Electroscope

170. … is a type of microscope that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the specimen.

a. The light microscope

b. The fluorescence microscope

c. The electron microscope

d. The optical microscope

e. The scanning acoustic microscope

171.The electron microscope uses electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses to...

a. range from the ultraviolet 

b. focus light into the eye or another light detector

c. control the electron beam and focus it to form an image

d.measure variations in acoustic impedance

e. provide energy

172.…produces images by detecting secondary electrons which are emitted from the surface due to excitation by the primary electron beam.

a.The transmission Electron Microscope

b.The scanning Electron Microscope

c. The optical microscope

d.The scanning acoustic microscope

e.The fluorescence microscope

173.Transmission electron microscopes produce … images

a. two-dimensional, red and blue

b. all rainbow color

c. white, grey

d. one-dimensional, red and blue

e.two-dimensional, black and white

174. The first electromagnetic lens was developed in 1926 by…

a. Isaac Newton

b. Hans Busch

c.Anton van Leeuwenhoek

d.Robert Hooke

e.Galileo Galilei

175. The lens that is within the eyepiece of the light microscope is called the:

  1.  Scanning
  2.  low power
  3.  high power
  4.  ocular

176. The wheel under the stage that adjusts the amount of light is called the:

  1.  coarse knob
  2.  body tube
  3.  stage clip
  4.  diaphragm

177. To focus a specimen, it is best to start with which objective:

  1.  high power
  2.  low power
  3.  scanning
  4.  ocular

178. When using the high power objective, you should not adjust the:

  1.  coarse focus
  2.  fine focus
  3.  diaphragm
  4.  stage clips

 179. The scanning, low, and high power objectives are mounted on the:

  1.  revolving nosepiece
  2.  stage
  3.  body tube
  4.  eyepiece

180. What is the name detecting microscope?

Compound Light

Stereomicroscope

Triple Beam Balence

Curved Cylender

181. Which of the following describes the electron microscope?

1-10 uminsize

Magnification limit of 1000x

10-100 uminsize

Approximately 2-3 nm

Can magnify up to 100,000x

182. What is the proper method for carrying a microscope?

With one hand on the neck and one on the base

With both hands on the base

With both hands on the arm

With only one hand to prevent fingerprints and smudges

183. Which characteristic describes the light microscope?

1-10 u min size

Magnification limit of 1000x

10-100 u min size

Approximately 2-3 nm

Can magnify up to 100,000x

184. Who observed cork cells under a microscope?

Hooke

Leeuwenhoek

Darwin

Noneofthese

185.  Electrodes for the biopotentials measuring are used in:

ballistocardiography (BCG);

phonocardiography;

viscosimeters;

ultrasound diagnostics;

cardiography.

186. Echocardiography is the method of studying the structure and movement

   of heart structures using:

ultrasound diagnostics;

biopotentials registering;

absorbed ultrasound;  

reflected ultrasound;

registering the currents and noises of the heart.

187. Regularity of the rhythm on cardiogram is determined by the equality of intercyclic intervals:

P - Q

Q –T

S – T

P – P

R – R

188. Time intervals between the prongs of the same name of neighbouring cycles are called:

intervals;

segments;

amplitudes;

frequencies;

periods.

189. Time of the excitation propagation in ventricles that is determined

   by the width of QRS complex is:

0.06 – 0.1 sec;

0.12 – 0.2 sec;

0.7 – 0.9 sec;

0.18 – 0.34 sec;

0.9 – 1.2 sec.               

190. Biopotential that is taken from the surface of a body is measured in:

milliampere;

millivolt;

nanometer;

micrometer;

Farad.

191. Standard bipolar leads fix … between two points of the body surface:

potential difference;

impedance;

changing of signal frequency;

membrane resting potential;

 action potential.

192. Are in cardiogram (2 answers):

prongs;

segments;

frequencies;

membrane potentials;

 +intervals.

193. The first standard lead corresponds to the placing of electrodes on:

A) right and left hands;

B) right hand and left leg;

C) left leg and left hand;

D) right leg and right hand;

E) right and left legs.

194. The second standard lead corresponds to the placing of electrodes on:

A) right and left hands;

B) right hand and left leg;

C) left leg and left hand;

D) right leg and right hand;

E) right and left legs.

195. The third standard lead corresponds to the placing of electrodes on:

A) right and left hands;

B) right hand and left leg;

C) left leg and left hand;

D) right leg and right hand;

E) right and left legs.

196. Which of the intervals does have the longest duration (in sec):

QRS  

RR  

ST  

QT

197. Heart biopotentials directly reflects the processes of excitation and

     conduction of impulses in:

myocardium;

pericardium;

neurolemma;

sarcolemma;

 dendrite.

198. Electrocardiography is based on:

А)Einthoven theory that allows to evaluate the heart biopotentials;

В) Faraday theory;

С) usage of ultrasound that allows to evaluate the measurement of heart sizes in dynamics;

Д) phenomenon of magnetostriction that allows to obtain ultrasound;

Е) Einstein theory.

199. ECG prongs are donoted in sequence:

А) P-Q-R-S-T-U

В) U-P-R-S-T-Q

С) U-Q-P-R-S-T

Д) P-Q-S-R-T-U

Е) P-Q-R-S-U-T

200.   …….is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over

a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface

of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body

A.Electrocardiography

B. Electroencephalography

C. electromyography

D.Ophthalmic rheography

E. Rheogepatography

201.  Method of evaluating the heart electrical activity based on recording

     the strength and  timing of  electrical signals as they pass through the heart:

Electrocardiography

Electroencephalography

Electromyography

Ophthalmic rheography

Rheogepatography

202. Normal heart rate is …… heartbeats per minute.

A. 60-90

B. 50-60

С.40-50

D. 60-70

E. 70-80

203. If an abnormal heart rate – more than 90 heartbeats per minute

A. Tachycardia

B.  Bradycardia

C.  Anemia

D. Ischemia

E.  myocardial infarction

204. If  an abnormal heart rate – less than 60 heartbeats per minute.

A. Tachycardia

B.  Bradycardia

C.  Anemia

D. Ischemia

     E.  myocardial infarction

205. Electrocardiography is based on:

Einthoven theory

Faraday's theory

Doppler phenomenon

Peltier  phenomenon

Einstein's theory

206.  Which of ECG intervals has the greatest time (in seconds):

PQ

QRS 

RR 

ST  

QT

207 .The device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation:

  1.  Laser
  2.  biosensors
  3.  microscope
  4.  electrode
  5.   spectroscop

208. The skeletal muscle fibers grow in length and diameter from birth to adulthood, with a fivefold increase in fiber diameter during this period:

A.Muscle fibers

B.  artery
C. arterioles
D. capillaries
E . veins

209. The ability to be stretched or to increase in length:

A. Extensibility

B. Elasticity

C. Irritability

D. Contractility

E. Viscosity

210. The ability to return to normal length after extension or contraction:

A. Extensibility

B. Elasticity

C. Irritability

D. Contractility

E. Viscosity

211. The ability to respond to a stimulus:

A. Extensibility

B. Elasticity

C. Irritability

D. Contractility

E. Viscosity

212. The ability of a muscle to shorten in length:

A. Extensibility

B. Elasticity

C. Irritability

D. Contractility

E. Viscosity

213. When light passes through an object the intensity is reduced depending upon the color absorbed -

A. Absorption

B. Refraction

C. Diffraction

D. Dispersion

E. Interference

214. Direction change of a ray of light passing from one transparent medium to another with different optical density. A ray from less to more dense medium is bent perpendicular to the surface, with greater deviation for shorter wavelengths-

A. Absorption

B. Refraction

C. Diffraction

D. Dispersion

E. Interference

215. Light rays bend around edges - new wavefronts are generated at sharp edges - the smaller the aperture the lower the definition-

A. Absorption

B. Refraction

C. Diffraction

D. Dispersion

E. Interference

216. Separation of light into its constituent wavelengths when entering a transparent medium - the change of refractive index with wavelength, such as the spectrum produced by a prism or a rainbow

A. Absorption

B. Refraction

C. Diffraction

D. Dispersion

E. Interference

217. A phenomenon in which two waves superimpose to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude-

A. Absorption

B. Refraction

C. Diffraction

D. Dispersion

E. Interference

218.  A transition from a lower level to a higher level with transfer of energy from the radiation field to an absorber, atom, molecule, or solid:

A. Absorption

B. Refraction

C. Diffraction

D. Dispersion

E. Interference

219. A transition from a higher level to a lower level with transfer of energy from the emitter to the radiation field. If no radiation is emitted, the transition from higher to lower energy levels is called non radiative decay:

A. Emission

B. Absorption

C. Diffraction

D. Dispersion

E. Interference

220. Redirection of light due to its interaction with matter. Scattering might or might not occur with a transfer of energy, i.e., the scattered radiation might or might not have a slightly different wavelength compared to the light incident on the sample.

A. Scattering

B. Absorption

C. Emission

D. Dispersion

E. Interference

221. A nanosecond is:

A. 109s

B. 10-9s

C. 10-10s

D. 10-6s

E. 10-12s

222. The SI base unit for mass is:

A. gram

B. pound

C. kilogram

D. meter

E. Om

223 .At the increasing of temperature the resistance of semiconductors:

А. increaseslinearly;

B. decreases linearly;

C. remains constant;

D. increases exponentially;

E.decreases exponentially.

224. At the increasing of temperature the resistance of conductors:

А. increaseslinearly;

B. decreases linearly;

C. remains constant;

D. increases exponentially;

E. decreasesexponentially.

225.Ultrasound sensor that allows to obtain the pictures of internal organs in ultrasound diagnostics is:

А. thermalsensor;

B. piezosensor;

C. capacitancesensor;

D. optic sensor;

E. strain gauge.

226. The possibility to receive the ultrasound image with the permanent contrast a long the all deepness of probing provides:

А. strain gauges;

B. thermographic cameras;

C. piezosensors;

D. thermalsensors.

227. How the converter of non-electrical quantities to electrical signals that are convenient for the following strengthening, registering and processing is called?

А. sensors;

B. electrodes;

C. isolators;

D. semiconductors;

E. electrolytes.

228.Specify only active (generator) sensors:

А. piezoelectric, strain gauge type sensors;

B. piezoelectric, photoelectrical;

C. capacitive, photoelectrical;

D. capacitive, rheostatic;

E. rheostatic, photoelectrical.

229.Specify only passive (parametric) sensors:

А. piezoelectric, strain gauge type sensors;

B. piezoelectric, photoelectrical;

C. capacitive, photoelectrical;

D. capacitive, rheostatic;

E. rheostatic, photoelectrical.

230.  How the sensors in which the active resistance at their mechanical deformation changes are called?

А. rheostatic;

B. strain gauge;

C. inductive;

D. piezoelectric;

E. active.

231.How sensors the principle of work of which is based on the phenomenon of polarization of crystallic dielectrics at deformation are called?

А. rheostatic;

B. strain gauge;

C. inductive;

D. piezoelectric;

E. active.

232.If conduct the electric current through the juncture of semiconducting thermocouple then the juncture heats or cools. It is called:

А. Peltier effect;

B. Compton scattering;

C. photoelectrical effect;

D. piezoelectric effect;

E. Doppler effect.

233. A  converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (electronic) instrument:

A. sensor 

B. microscope

C. electrode

D. spectroscop

E. x-ray crystallography

234. In biomedicine and biotechnology, sensors which detect analytes thanks to a biological component, such as cells, protein, nucleic acid or biomimetic polymers, are called

A. biosensors.

B. microscope

C. electrode

D. spectroscop

E. x-ray crystallography

235.  Sensor for measuring temperature-

A. thermocouple

B. microscope

C. electrode

D. spectroscop

E. x-ray crystallography

236. A temperature-measuring device consisting of two dissimilar conductors that contact each other at one or more spots-

A. thermocouple

B. microscope

C. electrode

D. spectroscop

E. x-ray crystallography

237. The weakening of the intensity of light at its passing through any substance because of converting of light energy to other types of energy is called:
  1.  light scattering;
  2.  dispersion;
  3.  interference;
  4.  diffraction;
  5.  light absorption.

238. In each following layer of the environment with the same thickness the same part of energy flow of falling light wave is absorbed regardless of its absolute value. It is:

  1.  Beer-Lambert law;
  2.  Tyndall effect;
  3.  Bouguer-Beer law;
  4.  Bouguer law;
  5.  Rayleigh law.

239. . What does express this formula?

  1.  light scattering law;
  2.  light absorption law;
  3.  light dispersion;
  4.  light reflection law;
  5.  light refraction law.

240.  Which phenomenon is the base of concentration colorimetry method?

  1.  light scattering;
  2.  light dispersion;
  3.  light absorption;
  4.  light polarization;
  5.  light reflection.

241. Monochromator of spectrophotometer is used for obtaining the:

A) coherent radiation;

B)radiation of strictly defined wavelength;

C) radiation of different wavelength;

D) ultraviolet radiation;

E) infrared radiation.

242. Which light gives the photochemical reaction?

A) light passing through a system;

B) light falling on a system;

C) light that is absorbed by a system;

D) light that is reflected from a system;

E) coherent radiation.

243. Decimal logarithm of the ratio of falling light intensity to the intensity of emerging from a sample light is called:

A) absorption coefficient;

B) absorption spectrum;

C) scattering index;

D) conductivity index;

E) optical density.

244. Which ability of a substance does the optical density show?

A) the absorptive ability; 

B) ability to conduct;

C) the scattering ability;

D) the refractive ability;

245.  - is … equation

A) Planck;

B) Rutherford;

C) Joule-Lenz;

D) Bouguer-Lambert-Beer; 

E) Einstein.

246. Can be determined by the energy value of absorbed quantums:

A) number of molecules;

B) the rate of motion of molecules;

C) amount of substance;

D)changing of energy levels of molecules;

E) amount of heat.

247. Electric vacuum or semiconductor devices, the principle of which is based on the photoelectric effect called ...

A. photoelectrons

B. optical

C. ultrasound

D. thermal

E. capacity

 

248. Quantitative determination of concentration of a substance to absorb light –

A.photocolorimeters

B. viscometer

C. electrocardiograph

D. ampermeter

C. voltmeter

249. Physico-chemical method of the study of solutions and solids, based on the study of the absorption spectra in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra regions –

A. spectrophotometry

B. electrocardiography

C. Viscometry

D. calorimetry

E. inductotermy

250. During sleep there is a delta rhythm - slow high-amplitude oscillations of the electrical activity of the brain, specify a range:

1. 0,5-3,5 Hz; up to 300 mkV

2. 8-13 Hz; up up 200 mkV

3. 8-13 Hz; up to 300 mkV

4. 3.5-7.5 Hz; up to 100mkV

5. 15-100 Hz; up to 100 mkV

251. Record of biological processes (biopotentials,biocurrents) in brain structures made by:

1. tomography

2. encephalography

3. phonocardiography

4. rheographs

5. laser

252. The myelin envelope surrounding the nerve cell areas, is a form of:

1. plasmatic membrane

2. nerve fiber

3. nevrolemmy

4. sarcolemma

5. karyotheca

253.Conducts nerve impulses from the cell body and dendrites to other neurons:

1. synapse

2. axon

3. plasmaticretikullum

4. soma

5. neurilemma

254. Sprig of neuron (short), conducting nerve impulses to the body of the neuron:

1. synapse

2. axon

3. plasmaticretikullum

4. soma

5. dendrite

255. The model of the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex:

1. model of Frank

2. model of Gibssa

3. Einstein model

4. model of Zhadin

5. model of Stoletova

256. Electroencephalography:

1. method of registration of bioelectrical activity of muscles

2. method of registration of biopotentials arising in the cardiac muscle during its excitation

3. method for registering the brain bioelectric activity

4. method of measuring the size of the heart in dynamics

5. method of measuring the velocity of blood flow

257. The main indicators of the value of EEG:

1. Frequency and amplitude of these oscillations

2. Changes in potential difference

3. Changes in the temperature difference

4. The standard deviation of these fluctuations

5. The average of the potential difference

258. Generation of exciting memory bandwidth in dendritic trunk without branching leads to.

1. quadrupole

2. dendritic dipole

3. action potentials

4. The resting potential

5. somatic dipole

259.Removable from the body surface biopotential is measured by:

1. milliampere

2. millivolts

3. nanometer

4. micron

5. centimeter

260.Types of electrical activity in the existing pyramidal neurons:

1. pulsed and gradual potentials

2. action potential

3. the resting potential

4. resting potential and interaction

5. interaction potential

261.Gradual (slow) potentials:

1. Moving postsynaptic potentials (PSP)

2. inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials

3. the resting potential

4. action potential

5. transforming potentials

262.Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (CAP) of pyramidal cells are generated by ...

1. in the outer side of neurons

2. between neurons and brain

3. in the bodyof neurons

4. the inner side of neurons

5. in dendrites

263.Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (CAP) of pyramidal neurons are generated by ..

1. in the outer side of neurons

2. between neurons and brain

3. in the bodyof neurons

4. the inner side of neurons

5. in the dendrites

264.Genesis of the EEG:

1. using the gradual electrical activity of pyramidal neurons

2. by impulse activity of pyramidal neurons

3. byelectric activity of dipoles

4. byelectric activity of cells

5. byelectric activity of soma

265.Change of membrane potential of pyramidal neurons explains ...

1. with the presence of a variable electric field

2. with the presence of a constant electric field

3. with the presence of pulse current in the neurons

4. with the presence of differing somatic and dendritic dipoles

5. with the change of the dipole moments

266. The potential generated by somatic dipole:

1. inhibitory memory bandwidth

2. exciting memory bandwidth

3. action potential

4. the resting potential

5. membrane potential

267. The potential generated by dendritic dipole:

1. braking memory bandwidth

2. excitatory memory bandwidth

3. action potential

4. the resting potential

5. membrane potential

268. The direction of the vector of dendriticdipole:

1. perpendicular to neurons

2. parallel to neurons

3. from the soma along the dendritic shaft

4. towards the soma along the dendritic shaft

5. from the neurons to the external environment

269. The direction of the vector of somatic dipole:

1. perpendicular to neurons

2. parallel to neurons

3. from the soma along the of dendritic shaft

4. toward the soma along the of dendritic shaft

5. from the neurons to the external environment

270. Signals of  Electroencephalogram:

1. over the ultrasonic

2. strong signals

3. weak and strong signals

4. constant signals

5. variable and weak signals

271. Distribution of neurons in the cortex:

1.evenly distributed and their dipole moments perpendicular to the cortical surface

2. evenly distributed and their dipole moments perpendicular to the cortical surface

3. unevenly distributed and their dipole moments are parallel to the surface of the cortex

4. evenly distributed and their dipole moments are parallel to the surface of the cortex

5. distributed chaotically

272.Communications between the activities of pyramidal neurons:

1. covalent bonds

2. powerfully negative relationship

3. weak negative relationship

4.  positive correlation

5. negative correlation

273. The values ​​characterized parameters of the EEG:

1.  amplitude and frequency of oscillation of the potential difference

2. impedance of electrical circuit

3. direction of oscillationpropagation

4. velocityof wave distribution

5. the period of oscillation of the potential difference

274. In the rest (in the absence of irritans) EEG records:

1. alpha rhythm

2. beta rhythm

3. gamma rhythm

4. delta rhythm

5. sigma rhythm

275. At active state of the brain the EEG records:

1.  alpha rhythm

2.beta rhythm

3. gamma rhythm

4. delta rhythm

5. sigma rhythm

276. During sleep the EEG records:

1.  alpha rhythm

2.  beta rhythm

3.  gamma rhythm

4. delta rhythm

5. sigma rhythm

277. At nervous excitement the EEG records:

1.  alpha rhythm

2.  beta rhythm

3.  gamma rhythm

4. delta rhythm

5. sigma rhythm

278. At the state of the rest (in the absence of irritant) of the brain EEG records alpha rhythm with frequencies:

1. + (8 - 13) Hz

2. (0.5 - 3.5) Hz

3. (14 - 30) Hz

4. (30 - 55) Hz and above

5. above 100 Hz

279. At active state of the brain the EEG records bettaritm with frequencies:

  1.  (8 - 13) Hz
  2.  (0.5 - 3,5) Hz
  3.  (14 - 30) Hz
  4.  (30 - 55) Hz and above
  5.  above 100 Hz

280. During sleep of the brain the EEG records delta rhythm with frequencies:

  1.  (8 - 13) Hz
  2.  (0.5 - 3,5) Hz
  3.  (14 - 30) Hz
  4.  (30 - 55) Hz and above
  5.  above 100 Hz

281. Electroencephalography:

1. recording and analysis of bio-potentials of the brain

2. recording and analysis of bio-potentials of the heart

3. recording and analysis of bio-potentials of skin

4. recording and analysis of retinal biopotentials

5. recording and analysis of bio-potentials of nerve trunks and muscles

283. Fundamental measure of biological effect of ionizing radiation is …

Absorbed dose

Effective dose

Equivalent dose

Kerma dose

DAP and DLP

284 .The worldwide average background dose for humanity per year…

About 3mv

About 1.5mv

About 2mv

About 1mv

About 3.5mv

285. A lethal dose of radiation to a human…

Approximately 10-30Gy

Approximately 15-25Gy

Approximately 20-10Gy

Approximately 20-30Gy

Approximately 25-30Gy

286. Effective dose measured in ..

Grays

Siverts

Joules

Grams

G/

287 .What is the medical dosimetry?

Measurement and calculation of dose

Analyzing of dose

Measurement of direct and indirect ionizing radiation

Calculation of absorbed dose and dose delivery in radiation therapy

Medical dosimetry focused on the calculation and analysis of internal and external dose

288. What is the flow of microparticles, which can ionize substance?

Particle accelerator

Resting potential

Ionizing radiation

Sun

Absorption

289 .What is ionization?

Process of ion disappearance from neutral atoms & molecules

Process of ion appearance from neutral atoms & molecules

Process of ion transformation in substances and compounds

Process of ion determination on science

Process of ion satisfaction

290. What science explores influence of ionization to living organisms?

Radiobiology

Physics

Chemistry

Biochemistry

Biology

291. By what device people measure an exposure of radiated energy?

Dozimetre

Microscope

Electro-microscope

biosensors

electrodes

292. What radiation wave is most powerfull in the same quantity?

Alpha-waves

Beta-waves

Gamma-waves

Ultra-violet light

Infrared light

293. Which radiation has the highest penetrating power?

 А. ;

B. ;

C.;

D. protons;

E. neutrons

294.   Which organ has the high sensitivity to radiation?

А. lens of an eye;

В. skin;

С. thyroid gland; 

D. stomach;

E. heart

295. Which method of ionizing radiation have a very short resolving time?

A.flurescent method

B.photographic method

C.chemical method

D.semiconductor method

E.biological method

296.  These give a dose rate and accumulated dose reading via the display:

a. Ultraviolet dosimeters

b. Electromagnetic field dosimeters

c. Electronic Personal Dosimeter

d. Sound dosimeters

e. microscope

297.  Ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, alpha rays, beta rays, and gamma rays, are undetectable by the human senses, therefore a measuring device is used to… Which one of the following is wrong?

a. detect

b. measure and record these

c. in some cases give an alarm when a preset level is exceeded

d. attract the light

e. absorption the light

298.  The level of radiation absorption is indicated by …, which is shown when the film is developed.

a. an absorption of light

b. thickness

c. a change to the film emulsion

d. distance

e. refraction the light

299.  A laser beam can be sharply focused because it is:

A. highly coherent

B. plane polarized

C. intense

D. circularly polarized

E. highly directional

300. The “e” in laser stands for:

A. electric

B. energy

C. emission

D. entropy

E. element




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