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Albert Einstein, a well-known German physicist and mathematician, was born in Germany on March 14, 1879. His unusual ability in mathematics and physics began to show itself at a technical school in Zurich.2 At the age of 21, after four years of university study, Albert Einstein got a job as a clerk in an office. But already in 1905 he made revolutionary discoveries in science. He published three papers in the field of physics and mathematics. In the first he explained the photoelectric effect by means of Planck's3 quantum theory. The second paper developed a mathematical theory of Brownian motion.4 He presented his third paper on "Special Theory of Relativity" to a physical journal. Einstein expressed his theory in the equation E - me, roughly that energy equals mass times the square of the speed of light.

All over the world scientists read the work with great surprise. Few physicists understood its importance at that time. Everybody wanted to know as much as possible about the author. Which institute did he teach in? What laboratory did he do his research in?

Einstein's fame among scientists grew slowly but surely. For a few years he lived in Prague5 where he worked as a professor. When he .came to Prague, he often told his students: "I will always try to help you. If you have a problem, come to me with it, we will solve it together."

He liked questions and answered them at once, for there were no simple or foolish questions for him. He spoke much with his students about scientific problems and his new ideas. His advice to students was, "Don't take easy problems."

In 1921 Einstein got the Nobel Prize in physics not for the theory of relativity but for a logical explanation of the photoelectric effect.

In 1922 he became a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences for his outstanding contributions to physics and mathematics.

On March 14, 1979 by UNESCO decision all people throughout the world celebrated the birth centenary of the great 20th century scientist


№  2. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879)

James Clerk Maxwell, the great physicist and mathematician, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on November 13, 1831.

After school he entered the University of that city. Then he attended the University of Cambridge and graduated from it in 1854. When at the University Maxwell took great interest in mathematics and optics.

For two years after the University he lectured, made experiments in optics at Trinity College and studied much himself.

In 1856 he became professor of natural philosophy and in 1860 professor of physics and astronomy at King's College, London. In London he lived for five years. Here he saw Faraday for the first time.1

In 1871 Maxwell became professor of experimental physics at Cambridge. At that time students could not even have such subjects as electricity or magnetism as there was no laboratory for the study of these subjects. Maxwell organized such a laboratory which made Cambridge world-known.2

This was a very fruitful period of Maxwell's life. He studied the problems of electromagnetism, molecular physics, optics, mechanics and others.

Maxwell wrote his first scientific work when he was fifteen. Since that time he wrote a great number of works which were the results of his experiments and calculations.

His most outstanding investigations, however, are in the field of the kinetic theory of gases and electricity. Maxwell is the founder of the electromagnetic field side by side with Faraday and the elecromagnetic theory.

3. MSTISLAV KELDYSH (1911-1978)

Mstislav Keldysh, a well-known Russian scientist, was born in Riga on January 28, 1911. He was a very capable boy and finished school at the age of 16. He wanted to become a building engineer like his father, but one could enter an engineering institute only at 17. The boy decided to enter Moscow University to study mathematics and physics.

After his graduation from the University at the age of 20, he began his research work at the Central Airo-Hydrodynamical Institute —the centre of aviation science at that time. The young scientist worked with enthusiasm and soon published a number of important scientific papers. When Keldysh was 27, he became Doctor of Sciences.

The scientist did his research in the field of mathematics and airo-hydrodynamics. Later he solved a number of problems in aviation, atomic and cosmic techniques.

At the same time as a professor of Moscow University he gave much of his abilities to the teaching of students.

For his fruitful research M. Keldysh got two State Prizes and the government awarded him the title of Hero of Socialist Labour three times. At the age of 30 M. Keldysh became an academician and on May 19, 1961 he became President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.


4. ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937)

Ernest Rutherford was born in New Zealand where he lived up to 1895. At the age of 19 after finishing school he entered the only New Zealand University founded in 1870. At that time there were only 150 students and 7 professors there. At the university Ernest took great interest in physics and developed a magnetic detector of radio waves. However, he was absolutely uninterested in the practical applications of his discoveries.

In 1895 Rutherford went to Cambridge where he continued research under Thomson (1856-1940), the outstanding English physicist. There Rutherford studied the processes of ionization in gases and took great interest in radioactivity opened by Becquerel (1852-1908), a world-known French physicist. About ten years Ernest Rutherford lived and worked in Canada. Later he lectured in leading universities in the USA and England from 1907 till 1919.

Rutherford's famous work "The Scattering of Alpha and Beta Particles of Matter and the Structure of the Atom" dealt with so-called "atom models". All main Rutherford's works deal with the nuclear models. The splitting of the atom has opened to man a new and enormous source of energy. The most important results have been obtained by splitting the atom of uranium.

For working out the theory of radioactive disintegration of elements, for determining the nature of alpha particles, for developing the nuclear atom, Rutherford was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Rutherford created a school of talented physicists in the field of atomic research. Russian scientists P. Kapitza and Y. Khariton were among his pupils. E. Rutherford died in 1937 at the age of 66.


The list of spheres of knowledge which Mendeleyev's genius touched upon is enormous. Chemistry, physics, earth sciences, metrology, economics, metallurgy and much else.' Mendeleyev's legacy comprises 25 volumes, a third of them devoted to chemistry.

D.I. Mendeleyev, the outstanding Russian scientist, was born in Tobolsk in 1834. In 1850 at the age of 16 he entered the Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg to study chemistry. Five years later he graduated from it with a gold medal and was invited to lecture on theoretical and organic chemistry at St. Petersburg University. To continue his studies and research Mendeleyev was sent to Germany in 1859. While living abroad he made a number of2 important investigations.

The year 1868 was the beginning of his highly important work "Fundamentals of Chemistry". When working at the subject Mendeleyev analysed an enormous amount of literature, made thousands of experiments and   calculations.   This   tremendous work resulted in the Table of Elements consisting of vertical groups and horizontal  periods.  Mendeleyev was the first to suggest a system of classification in which the elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic weights. The main idea of the Periodic System is the idea of periodic repetition of properties with the increase of the atomic weights.

Arranging all the existing elements in the Table Mendeleyev had to overcome great difficulties, as a considerable number of elements were unknown at that time and the atomic weights of 9 elements (out of 63) were wrongly determined. Thanks to his investigations Mendeleyev was able to predict not only the existence of a few unknown elements but their properties as well. Later the elements predicted were discovered.

More than 350 works created by Mendeleyev deal with a great many subjects. Combining theory with practical activities he carried out enormous research in coal, iron and steel industries in Russia. He died in 1907 at the age of 73.

The achievements in chemistry and physics at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century made it necessary to reconstruct the Periodic Table taking into account3 new discoveries.

Time is the severest judge in science. After more than 100 years of its existence, the Periodic Law has preserved its full value and is being constantly developed with each new discovery.

6. IGOR KURCHATOV (1903—1960)

Among our famous atomic scientists the first place belongs by right1 to Academician Igor Kurchatov. Everybody knows that it was he who laid the foundation of the atomic might of Russia.

At the same time Fermi started to work at splitting nucleus and in 1939 he showed that when uranium nucleus was split by slow neutrons, two-three fast neutrons were emitted.

Taking into consideration this phenomenon Fermi managed to carry out in practice the nucleus chain reaction in December 1942Since 1925 I.V. Kurchatov began to work at the Physical-Engineering Institute in Leningrad. It was here that he achieved great results in the research of dielectrics which had been little known at that time. As far as the early thirties2 atomic research was being successfully conducted in the Soviet Union. Soviet nuclear physics was in need of a powerful source of fast particles capable of inducing a nuclear reaction. A group of young research workers, with I. Kurchatov at the head, began investigating the physics of the nucleus of the atom. Their investigations led to a striking discovery of fission of uranium nucleus.

I. Kurchatov understood that the neutron was the key to splitting the atom and he put all his efforts into neutron research. In 1940 I. Kurchatov came to the conclusion that slow neutron chain reaction was quite possible. But World War II interrupted his work, and all research programs had to be suspended. During the war I. Kurchatov gave all his energy and knowledge to the strengthening of military might of our Motherland.

In 1949 the Soviet Government announced that the secret of the atom bomb no longer existed and the USA had lost its atomic monopoly. It was decided that Soviet scientists would continue their work in the field of atom application for peace.

On June 27, 1954, the first atomic power plant in the world was put into operation near Moscow. This power generating installation based on the uranium-graphite reactor was Kurchatov's favourite creation. Later he was carried away by another great idea — to master controlled thermonuclear reactions and he declared that the second half of the 20th century would be the era of thermonuclear energy.

I.V. Kurchatov died in 1960 but his experience and his knowledge have become immortalized in the world's first atomic power plant, in atom-driven ice-breakers, in Dubna Institute and in the broad development of thermonuclear research in our country.


Radio occupies one of the leading places among the greatest achievements of modern engineering. It was invented by Professor A.S. Popov, the talented Russian scientist, who demonstrated the first radio-receiving set in the world on May 7, 1895. And it is on this day that we mark the anniversary of the birth of the radio.

By his invention Popov made a priceless contribution1 to the development of world science.

Nearly at the same time an Italian inventor G. Marconi, who moved to Great Britain in 1896, got an English patent on using electromagnetic waves for communication without wires. As A.S. Popov had not yet patented his invention by that time, the world considered Marconi to be the inventor of radio. But in our country it is A.S. Popov who we by right call an inventor of radio.

A.S. Popov was born in the Urals on March 16, 1859. For some years he had been studying at the seminary in Perm and then went to the University of St. Petersburg. In his student days he worked as a mechanic at one of the first electric power-plants in St. Petersburg which was producing electric lights for Nevsky prospect.

After graduating from the University in 1882, A.S. Popov remained there as a post-graduate at the Physics Department. A year later he became a lecturer in Physics and Electrical Engineering in Kronstadt. By this time he had already won recognition2 among specialists as an authority in this field.

After Hertz had published his experiments proving the existence of electromagnetic waves, A.S. Popov thought of a possibility of using Hertz waves for transmitting signals over a distance. Thus the first wireless (radio) receiving set was created. Then Popov developed his device and on March 24, 1896 he demonstrated the transmission and reception of a radiogram consisting of two words: Heinrich Hertz. On that day the radio-telegraphy was converted from an abstract theoretical problem into a real fact. A.S. Popov did not live to see the great progress of his invention.

Popov's invention laid the foundation for further inventions and improvements in the field of radio engineering. Since that time scientistsall over the world have been developing the modern systems of radio-telegraphy, broadcasting, television, radiolocation, radio navigation and other branches of radio electronics.



Marie Curie was born in Warsaw on November 7, 1867. Her father was a teacher of science and mathematics in a school, and it was from him that little Marie Sktodowska (her Polish name) learned her first lesson in science.

In 1891 she went to Paris to continue her studies at the Sorbonne.2 She determined to work for two Master's degrees — one in physics, the other in mathematics. Yet she had scarcely enough money to live on. She studied night after night after her hard day's work at the University. She chose her course and nothing could turn her from it.

Among the many scientists with whom Marie met and worked in Paris was Pierre Curie. When he met Marie he was 35 years old and was famous throughout Europe for his discoveries in magnetism.

Pierre Curie and Marie, both of whom loved science more than anything else, very soon became the closest friends. After a little more than a year Marie became Madame Curie.

At that time she had already her Master's degree in physics and mathematics and was busy in researches on steel. She wished to obtain a Doctor's degree. Pierre and Marie Curie were greatly interested in the work of the French scientist Becquerel. There is a rare metal uranium which, as Becquerel discovered, emits rays very much like X-rays. The Curies wanted to discover the mystery of the rays of uranium. What caused them? How strong were they?

The research was carried out under great difficulties. Marie Curie had to use an old store-room at the University as her laboratory. There was no proper apparatus and very little space for research work. But she had to make the best of it.

Besides uranium Marie Curie began to examine every known chemical substance. She repeated her experiments time after time and found that one mineral emitted much more powerful rays than uranium. So she could only decide that this mineral must contain some new element. It was a mystery. This seemed unthinkable. Scientists declared that every element was already known to them. However, all Marie's experiments proved that the mineral contained some new and unknown element. There was no other explanation for the powerful rays which it emitted. Scientists call the property to give out such rays "radioactivity", and Marie Curie decided to call the new element "radium".



N.I. Lobachevsky is a great Russian mathematician and the creator of non-Euclidean geometry. He was born on December 1, 1792 in Nizhni Novgorod in a poor family. When N. Lobachevsky was a child, his father died and the family moved to Kazan. There the boy learned at the "gymnasium" from 1802 to 1807 and in 1807 he entered Kazan University. At the University N.I. Lobachevsky spent the next forty years of his life as a student, professor and rector.

Lobachevsky became interested in mathematics when he was still a schoolboy and he remained true to this science all his life long.

Lobachevsky did a lot to make Kazan University a first-rate educational institution. At the same time he made extensive researches into mathematics.

On February 23, 1826 a great event took place at Kazan University. N.I. Lobachevsky presented a paper "A Brief Outline of the Principles of Geometry Strictly Demonstrating the Theorem of Parallel Lines." That day a new geometrical system, the so-called non-Euclidean geometry was born. In the paper he attacked the theory which was the basis of geometry for 2,000 years and made a real revolution in mathematics.

In the years that followed Lobachevsky wrote a number of works in the field of algebra and mathematical analysis. However, nearly nobody understood and recognized his works at that time. They were recognized only twelve years after his death.

Lobachevsky's ideas greatly influenced the development not only of geometry and other mathematical sciences, but also mechanics, physics and astronomy. One British mathematician called Lobachevsky «Copernicus of Geometry».


The young man spent hours over ideas he had put down in a schoolboy's notebook. In a home-made machine he made lots of experiments to see how living things withstood the effects of gravity and acceleration. The date was 1879, in a small Russian village near Ryazan. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was 22, waiting for a post of a schoolmaster.

The problem at which he worked was interplanetary travel. Though Tsiolkovsky soon began a long career as a teacher of mathematics, man's penetration into space remained his life-long study.

In 1883 he noted that the rocket would be the only man-made instrument able to reach space. The prediction was published only in 1954, when his collected works were printed by the Soviet Academy of Sciences.

The mathematical terms of space travel were worked out by Tsiolkovsky as early as 1895 in the manuscript "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Reaction-Propelled Apparatus". When it was published in 1903, Tsiolkovsky won immediate international recognition, especially among the pioneers of aviation science.

In order to get money for his researches Tsiolkovsky tried to publish his book "Outside the Earth" in 1916, in which he described the imaginary flight of a manned rocket ship in orbit about the earth.

It was only in 1920 that the book was published and it fired the imagination of other scientists in our country as well as abroad. In 1929 when Tsiolkovsky was 72, Professor Herman Obert, a German scientist, wrote to him: "You kindled this fire. We shall not let it die. It is necessary that man's greatest dream should be realized."

In the book "Outside the Earth" Tsiolkovsky assembled a group of famous scientists in an imaginary mountain laboratory: Galileo, Newton, Laplace, Helmholz, Franklin and a modest Russian named Ivanov. At their disposal is an army of the world's best engineers and technicians. The year is 2017.

Together the scientists work out the theories of cosmic flight. They test rockets and fuels, discuss ways of living aboard a rocket, and design a 300-ton spaceship. The voyage that follows is described very vividly. Some of the details of this imaginary flight you have seen in reality on your own TV screen — weightless objects floating around a cosmonaut, the black sky of space, the blast-off of a man-carrying rocket.

In 1935 Tsiolkovsky wrote "All who are occupied with writing science fiction are doing good work; they excite interest, promote the working of the brain and bring into being people who will work on grand projects in the future.

№ 11.
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev.

D.I. Mendeleev is the great Russian scientist and father of the periodic table of elements and the prominent chemist who developed the periodic classification of the elements. In his final version of the periodic table (1871) he left gaps, foretelling that they would be filled by elements not then known and predicting the properties of three of those elements.

Mendeleyev was the 17th and last child of the director of the gymnasium at Tobolsk. At school Dmitry excelled in mathematics, physics, and geography but fared badly in the compulsory classical languages.          In 1855 he qualified as a teacher, winning a gold medal for his academic achievements. In 1857 he received his first university appointment. In 1859 the government sent him for further study to the University of Heidelberg. His study of molecular cohesion was begun at this time.  In 1861 Mendeleyev returned to St. Petersburg. In 1864 he became professor of chemistry at the Technical Institute, and three years later he was made professor of general chemistry at the university there.          Here he carried on scientific and pedagogical activities for 23 years. His lectures in theoretical, organic, and technological chemistry were always engrossing and the students of that time attended them and listen to their professor with great interest and attention.    

Besides lectures, Mendeleyev made a lot of experiments in his laboratory and in his classes. He recorded the results of his experiments and later analyzed them. Since he could not find a textbook that met his needs, he set about writing his own: the result was The Principles of Chemistry (1868-70), a classic textbook.       Mendeleyev described more than 60 elements and found that all the elements could be divided into nine groups. Each of these groups may be distributed into five rows. The elements of one group possessed more or less similar properties. In 1869 a new era in chemical thought began when Mendeleyev published his periodic table of elements. Mendeleyev indeed foretold the existence of hitherto unknown elements, for which he had left several blank spaces in his table of elements. He even described their properties beforehand. He also disproved the accepted atomic weights of some of the already known elements and specified their real atomic weights.  The unknown elements whose existence Mendeleyev had foretold and whose properties he described were actually discovered in his lifetime.     

Mendeleyev paid much attention to many other subjects. He was the first to put forward the idea of studying the upper layers of the atmosphere. Mendeleyev always combined theory and practice. He gave a great deal of attention throughout his life to the development of industry in Russia. He wrote: "Science and industry - there lay my dreams!"

In 1893 Mendeleyev was appointed director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures. He was an elected member of many academies abroad.

Mendeleyev died at the age of 73. He was engaged in scientific research to the very last day of his life. He looked upon work as man's duty and calling. Once said about himself: "I have served my country and science for 48 years. The result of my work is my fame as a scientist, which is a source not of personal pride, but, above all, of my pride as a Russian".

The Russian people are justly proud of their great son, the genius of science, Mendeleyev, the bright star of Russian and world chemical thought!


№ 12. Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich

M.V.Lomonosov (1711-65) is a Russian writer, chemist, and astronomer, who made important contributions to both literature and science. He was a poet, a scientist, and a grammarian who is often considered the first Great Russian linguistic reformer. He also made substantial contributions to the natural sciences, reorganized the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences, established in Moscow the university that today bears his name, and created the first colored glass mosaics in Russia.

Lomonosov was born November 19, 1711, in Denisovka (now Lomonosov), near Arkhangelsk. Lomonosov was the son of a poor fisherman. In December 1730 he left his native village, penniless and on foot, for Moscow. His ambition was to educate himself to join the learned men on whom the tsar Peter I the Great was calling to transform Russia into a modern nation.

In order to be admitted to the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy he had to conceal his humble origin; the sons of nobles jeered at him, and he had scarcely enough money for food and clothes. But his robust health and exceptional intelligence enabled him in five years to assimilate the eight-year course of study; during this time he taught himself Greek and read the philosophical works of antiquity.

Noticed at last by his instructors, in January 1736 Lomonosov became a student at the St. Petersburg Academy. Seven months later he left for Germany to study at the University of Marburg. In September 1736, Lomonosov together with some other students was sent by the Academy to Germany in order to study metallurgy and mining in connection with a projected scientific expedition to Kamtchatka. M. V. Lomonosov remained abroad for about five years, most of which time he spent at Marburg where he studied philosophy, physics, and mechanics..  In 1739, in Freiberg, Lomonosov studied firsthand the technologies of mining, metallurgy, and glassmaking. After breaking with one of his masters, the chemist Johann Henckel, Lomonosov returned in July 1741 to St. Petersburg.

The "276 Notes on Corpuscular Philosophy and Physics" set forth the dominant ideas of his scientific work. Appointed a professor by the Academy in 1745, he translated Christian Wolff's "Studies in Experimental Philosophy" into Russian and wrote, in Latin, important works on the "Cause of Heat and Cold", "Elastic Force of Air", and "Theory of Electricity

Anxious to train students, he wrote in 1752 an introduction to the physical chemistry course that he was to set up in his laboratory. The theories on the unity of natural phenomena and the structure of matter that he set forth in the discussion on "Origin of Light and Colors" and in his theoretical works on electricity in 1753 and 1756 also appered in this laboratory.

Encouraged by the success of his experiments in 1760, Lomonosov inserted in the "Reflections on the Solidity and Fluidity of Bodies" the "universal law of nature"--that is, the law of conservation of matter and energy, which, with the corpuscular theory, constitutes the dominant thread in all his research.

Interested in furthering Russian education, Lomonosov helped to found the Moscow State University in 1755 (now Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University), for which he had drawn up the plans. Appointed a councilor by the Academy in 1757, he undertook reforms to make the university an intellectual centre closely linked with the life of the country. 

Often called a founder of Russian science, Lomonosov was an innovator in many fields. As a scientist he rejected the phlogiston theory of matter commonly accepted at the time, and he anticipated the kinetic theory of gases. He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. Lomonosov was the first person to record the freezing of mercury, and to observe the atmosphere of Venus during a solar transit.

Despite the honors that came to him, he continued to lead a simple and industrious life, surrounded by his family and a few friends. He left his house and the laboratory erected in his garden only to go to the Academy. His prestige was considerable in Russia, and his scientific works and his role in the Academy were known abroad. He was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and of that of Bologna.  3580

№ 13. Newton and problem of gravitation

Newton was born in 1642. His father died before his son's birth. When Newton was fifteen, his uncle removed him from school, planning to make a farmer of him. However, finding that he made a poor farmer, the uncle sent him back to school and then to the University of Cambridge, where later on he lectured on mathematics for more than 30 years. Newton soon distinguished himself in mathematic, having made a member of important contributions to that science by the time he was twenty-one.

In 1665 the great plague broke out in England and Cambridge closed its doors.

Newton was obliged to return home, and it was there in the following year that observing the fall of an apple from a tree, he came to the conclusion that the force keeping the planets in their orbits around the sun was the same force that caused the apple to fall, the force of gravity. He wanted to know if gravity was the cause of the motion of the Moon. However, his calculations showed that it was not. What Newton did not know was that the then accepted figure for the distance from the Earth to the Moon was wrong. He put the problem aside.

Six years passed by. In 1672 more accurate calculations were made making it possible to establish the true size of the Earth. From these it possible to establish the true distance to the Moon. Newton's interests in the subject of gravitation being revived, he started a new set of calculations, devoting all his time to the subject for two years.

His interest was so great that he forgot everything else. Sitting half dressed on his bed he remained there in thought all day long eating only when food was brought to him and not noticing what he was eating.

The first part of his "Principia" has been finished, but he put off publishing it. Instead, he looked it in his desk having decided to keep it there until after his death.

However, other scientists began to take interest in the subject of gravitation. Astronomers, physicists and other talked about it at their meetings in London. Wren, the famous architect, offered a prize to either scientist who could prove why the path of a planet must be an ellipse. But neither could do it. In 1684 Helley, the astronomer, visiting Newton at Cambridge asked him if he could solve the problem. Newton said he had already got the answer. And so the great "Pnncipia" was given to the world. Newton had laid down in it the law of universal gravitation. This states that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other with a force, which is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Newton then proceeded to show that the laws of the planets were the natural results of universal gravitation. He proved mathematically that the planets had to move just as they did. He showed further how the mass of the sun could be calculated from the speed and distance of any planet.

It is difficult for us to realize how important Newton's work was. The publication of his "Principia" has been compared to a sunrise. But he himself was always modest. Once he said: "I do not know what the world will think of my labors, but to myself it seems that I have been but as a child playing on the sea-shore, now finding some pebble rather more polished, and now some shelf rather more beautiful than another, while the immense ocean of truth extended itself unexplored before me.


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