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Generl He helped to trnsform the EsttesGenerl into the Ntionl ssembly So the person originlly clergymn plyed mjor role in the politicl life of his country

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Ivadilinova Meruyert



Brian Elsesser

Doc. 100


Sieyès's ’What Is the Third Estate?’ pamphlet was written to express his social and political attitudes on the eve of the revolution. It was very successful and has achieved its objectives. First, the audience moved beyond simple demands and took a more radical position on the nature of government. Second, what as for Sieyès, he was elected as the last of the deputies to the Third Estate from Paris to the Estates-General.  He helped to transform the Estates-General into the National Assembly So the person originally clergyman, played a major role in the political life of his country.


1st and 2nd estates held all the power. Each estate had one vote. So it was inevitable that the 1st and 2nd would vote against the 3rd. Also the 3rd estate had to bear the burden of heavy taxes, while the clergy and nobility paid nothing.



Under ‘The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen’ citizens had the individual and collective rights as universal and valid at all times and in every place. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. They were defined as ‘natural’. Also the law of the presumption of innocence has its origins in this document. Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. Also all citizens were to have the right to take part in the legislative process.


In this document property became being an inviolable and sacred right. And no one can be deprived of it unless of some reasons that are described in the document.


According to the Gouges women gained nothing from the French Revolution.

Doc. 102


According to Burke, the society lost more than it had gained from the revolution. The people of France lost “everything human and divine sacrificed to the idol public credit”. He states that "France has bought poverty by crime!" The French lost their virtues for corruptions and wealth. The result of the overthrow of the revolution was a worse society, a failure of the people to revolt.


Burke says: "...The will of many, and their interest, must very often differ; and great will be the difference when they make an evil choice". Burke did not see how it was possible for so many individuals to agree. He didn’t’ believe in equality. He didn’t believe in equality. Therefore in his opinion a representative democracy is not the best way to run a state.


The result of the French Revolution, according to Burke, is total chaos. Revolutionaries succeeded in overthrowing the monarchy, but they didn't really have the knowledge or experience to go from there. They didn’t know how to establish an effective an efficient government. Crime, new legislation, trade and poverty were major problems that the country faced, but no one knew how to solve them. Burke is saying that the reason the revolution failed, is that in the end the people of France lost everything they had, for some unknown goal. What Burke thinks is that they had greatly organized government and perfect constitution, better than they could ever have.

Doc. 103


Robespierre defined "terror" as necessary, laudable and inevitable policy. He believed that the Republic and virtue were of necessity inseparable. He reasoned that the Republic could be saved only by the virtue of its citizens, and that his terror was virtuous because it attempted to maintain the Revolution and the Republic. Robespierre defined himself as not dictator. He says that Caesar and Cromwell seized power for themselves. 

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