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Тексты для чтения и перевода

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Тексты для чтения и перевода

Текст № 1.

LET ME INTRODUCE MYSELF

Hello, friends. Let me first introduce1 myself. My name is Vera. My surname or last name is Voronina. I was born on the 13th of October in Sochi, Krasnodarsky Krai. This is the most beautiful city in Russia situated on the Black Sea coast2. Now I am a first-year student3 at the Faculty of Environmental Protection of Ufa State Petroleum Technical University.

Now let me describe my appearance4. I am tall and slim5 and have fair hair and blue eyes. My friends say that I am pretty. I love sports and music. I was very serious about a career in gymnastics6 when I was in the 4th form. But then I broke my arm7 and doctors didn't let me go in for gymnastics. I love to listen to the modern music and dance. I dance a lot and I hope I am good at it. I also love swimming. I always swim in the Black sea when I visit my parents, my dear family.

I would like to tell you about my family. There are five people in our family. My father's name is Mikhail Yevgenyevich. He is a mathematician8 by education but works at a bank now. My mother's name is Natalya Yakovlevna. She works as a chief accountant9 at the hotel «Zhemchuzhina». She also has much work about the house after she gets home from work. But my sister and I always help her. Yes, let me introduce my younger sister. She is still a pupil. Her name is Olga and she is in the fifth form. She is very pretty and a great dancer. We are good friends with my sister. My grandmother, my mother's mother, lives with us. She is very kind10 and helps us a lot.

Our family is very friendly, we have many friends. In summer many relatives come to visit us. And of course they use a chance to spend several11 weeks in beautiful Sochi.

In May I have finished school Num.5 in Sochi. I did well12 in all the subjects but my favourite subjects at school were Computer Science and English. I also enjoyed Geography lessons.

I am very interested in learning English because I always wanted to become an economist or a manager at some joint venture13. That is why I think it is necessary to know at least one foreign language. Besides, knowledge of foreign languages helps in everyday life.

As you see, my biography isn't very long yet. But we'll meet again soon and I’ll tell you more about myself. See you later...

VOCABULARY

1. introduce [intrə'dju:s] — представлять, знакомить 

2. the Black Sea coast [kəust] — побережье Черного моря

3. a first-year studentстудент первого курса

4. appearance [ə'рiərəns] — внешность

5. slim стройный

6. gymnastics [dim'næstiks] — гимнастика

7. broke my armсломала руку

8. mathematician [mæθimə’ti∫ən] - математик

9. chief accountant — [t∫i:f ə'kauntənt] — главный бухгалтер

10. kind добрый

11. several [ 'sεvərl] — несколько

12. to do well зд. успевать

13. joint ventureсовместное предприятие 

Add to your active vocabulary

(Пополни свой активный словарь)

How are you? / How are you doing? / How is it going? Как дела? Как поживаешь? (Informal)

Hi! What's up? — Здорово! Что новенького? (Informal)

tall [to:l] - высокий

short [o:t] — маленького роста

stout [staut] — приземистый, коренастый

slim — стройный

fat [fæt] — толстый

plumper (plΛmpə] — полный

fair hair [ə' ə] — светлые волосы

blonde [blond] — блондин (-ка)

brunette [bru: 'nεt] — брюнет (-ка)

gray hair - седые волосы

bold headed [bəuld] - лысый short sighted — близорукий

smart, clever, right умный 

stupid [stju:pid] — тупой, глупый 

boring скучный 

fun to be with веселый человек 

easy to go along легкий в общении 

quiet [kwaiət] — спокойный 

impulsive [‘impΛlsiv] — порывистый, импульсивный 

aggressive [a'grεsiv] — агрессивный 

rude [ru:d] — невежливый, грубый 

shy [∫ai], confused [kən 'fju:zd] — застенчивый

active [‘æktiv] — активный 

talkative [‘to:kətiv] — разговорчивый 

enthusiast [in’θu:ziæst] — энтузиаст, затейник

Текст № 2.

THE ROLE OF EDUCATION FOR MODERN YOUTH

Education is very important for youth today. It helps young people realize their possibilities1 in future. It helps find job, do the job well.

People in Russia can get education at different institutions2. They are3 schools, professional schools, technical schools and higher schools. There are a few types of higher schools in our country. They are universities, institutes and academies. They train specialists in the natural and exact sciences and the humanities4. There are specialized higher schools training engineers, doctors, teachers, etc.

Today a student must assimilate5 large amounts of new information. It is growing all the time. So the main task of higher education is to teach students to gain the new information by self-training6.

Study rooms are now equipped with TV sets, computers, video tape-recorders, etc. Lectures and seminars alternate with laboratory work, discussions, research work and self-training.

A large part of study time is devoted to7 basic subjects. This enables8 future specialists to attain9 greater professional knowledge and assimilate more modern methods of scientific research, advanced production technology, its organisation and management. This provides a basis for10 the study of special subjects and the organisation of practise.

Great is the role of books in the education. It is practically impossible today to imagine our life without books. You can find them in every house. But very seldom people think about a long way the book has come. At first man learned to draw pictures, then letters and alphabetic writing appeared. For a long time people used papyrus11 and skins of different animals to write on. Then the Chinese invented paper.

At that time there were not so many books as there are now. All the books were written by hand with pen and ink. Monks12 did the most of this writing. Some of the books were very beautiful. But it took much time to write a book. Often many years were spent to make one copy of a book. This made books very expensive. Most people had no books at all and those who had twenty books were considered to be very rich.

At last13 men learned how to print14. It happened in Germany in the middle of the fifteenth century. The man who invented the art of printing15 in Russia was Ivan Fedorov. He started his work in Moscow, and then moved to other cities. In 1574 he printed the first Azbuka (ABC). This book helped people to learn the alphabet and taught them to read.

Now we find it hard to imagine17 the bookless world of the past. Books are printed in great number16 all over the world and every person can enjoy their wisdom18.

VOCABULARY

1) realize ones possibilities – реализовать чьи-то возможности

2) an institution – учебное заведение

3) They are … - зд. Это

4) the natural and exact sciences and the humanitiesестественные, точные и гуманитарные науки

5) assimilateусваивать

6) to gain the new information by self-trainingприобретать новую информацию самоподготовкой

7) to devote to – посвящать

8) to enable – давать возможность, позволять

9) to attainдостигать

10) to provide a basis forобеспечить основу для

11) papyrus [pə’paiərəs] - папирус

12) monkмонах

13) at lastнаконец

14) to print - печатать

15) the art of printing - искусство книгопечатания

16) in great number - в большом количестве

17) to imagine – представить, вообразить

18) wisdom - мудрость

Текст3.

THE UNIVERSITY I STUDY AT

The petroleum university is one of the leading1 higher schools on training of scientifically pedagogical staff for profile higher schools of Russia. It trains specialists for oil-and-gas and building complexes. In postgraduate studies2 they train specialists of the top skills on 27, and in doctoral studies3 - on 5 scientific directions.

225 persons study in postgraduate, and 22 persons are trained in doctoral studies. More than 100 professors of the university carried out the scientific management4 of post-graduate students and doctors. In 1996 the first eight graduates defended their theses. Basically these are young people in the age not older than thirty - the future professors and heads of the faculties of the university.

Eight specialized councils5 on awarding of scientific degrees of candidate and doctor of sciences6 work at the university. For the years of the existence of the university 140 doctor's and 1150 master's theses were defended at these councils. Curriculums7 according to standard specialties are successfully improved. Except for the traditional five years' program, training of specialist is carried out on multilevel system (the bachelor - the expert - the master).

Educational process at all grade levels undergoes great changes8. The wide development is received by modern information and computer technologies.

One of the major fields of activity of the higher school in modern conditions is its international cooperation in the fields of science and education with foreign universities and organizations. Today at the university more than 150 foreign students from 24 countries of the world are trained.

In recent years there were made more than 17 agreements with educational and scientific institutions of France, England, Canada, Austria, Hungary, Denmark, China and other countries. They are successfully realized.

Groups of post-graduate students and doctors take annual training9 in the French institute of petroleum, at the University of the city of Mishkoltz (Hungary) and at the Gorny institute of Austria and in other countries. For the first time10 in 1996 24 teachers of the USPTU after having trained at the Huyron university (England) have received international certificates giving them right to teach their specialty in English.

Post-graduate students and teachers of the university take part in international conferences with reports, participate in exhibitions and read lectures at foreign universities.

The Ufa State Petroleum Technical University is a component of the uniform educational space11 of the Russian Federation and participates in integrational processes with the thermal power stations of the Russian Federation and the republic of Bashkortostan, carries out a united scientific and technical, educational -methodical, industrial and financial politics for the decision of problems facing12 them.

VOCABULARY

1) leadingведущий

2) postgraduate studiesаспирантура

3) doctoral studiesдокторантура

4) scientific managementнаучное управление

5) a specialized councilспециализированный совет

6) to award a scientific degree of candidate and doctor of sciencesприсуждать научную степень кандидата и доктора наук

7) curriculum – учебная программа

8) to undergo great changes –подвергаться большим изменениям

9) annual trainingежегодная подготовка

10) for the first timeвпервые

11) uniform educational space – единое образовательное пространство

12) problems facing smb. – проблемы, стоящие перед кем-либо

Текст № 4.

MY MOTHERLAND

THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area1 is about 17 million square kilometers. 12 seas and 3 oceans wash the country: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Byelorussia, the Ukraine. It also has a sea border with the USA.

There is hardly2 a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found: steppes3 in the south, plains4 and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.

There are two Great Plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland5. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus6, the Altai and the others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.

There are over two million rivers in Russia. The longest river in Europe, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main rivers the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.

Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1600 meters) is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is very clear.

Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.

There are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south on the vast territory of the country. In the middle of the country the climate is moderate7 and continental.

Russia is very rich in oil8, coal9, iron ore10, natural gas, copper11, nickel12 and other mineral resources.

Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative powers13 are exercised14 by the Duma.

The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is the largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.

At present, the political and economic situation in the country is rather complicated, there are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian Federation. The industrial production is decreasing15. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt16.

But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world again.

VOCABULARY

1) total area - общая площадь

2) hardly - едва

3) steppe - степь

4) plain - равнина

5) lowland - низменность

6) the Caucasus - Кавказ

7) moderate - умеренный

8) oil - нефть

9) coal - уголь

10) iron ore - железная руда

11) copper - медь

12) nickel - никель

13) legislative power - законодательная власть

14) to exercise - выполнять

15) to decrease - снижаться

16) to go bankrupt - обанкротиться

BASHKORTOSTAN

The Republic of Bashkortostan is a sovereign republic within the Russian Federation. It is located along the South Urals. Its territory is 143.600 square kilometers. The population is over 4 million people. About a hundred nationalities inhabit1 the Republic.

From the point of natural conditions2 Bashkortostan can be divided into three parts: western, mountains and Bashkir Trans-Urals3. The climate is continental with moderately warm, sometimes hot summers and cold winter.

More than 600 rivers and 800 lakes trim4 the beauty of the Republic's nature. Many of the rivers, including the Ural and the Agidel, belong to the Caspian Sea basin5.

Bashkortostan is rich in forests. The Republic accounts6 nearly all lime-tree7 forests of Russians. It is the lime-tree that makes Bashkir honey world-famous.

The mineral riches of Bashkortostan include iron ore8, copper, gold, zinc, aluminum, chromium, brown coal, natural gas, salt, manganese9, gypsum, lime-stone10 and many other deposits.

Oil is the main mineral resource of the land. Oil-related industries11 - power generation12, oil refining, chemical, gas and petrochemical have become most prominent13. The convenient geographical location promotes the development of manufacturing and agribusiness. Bashkortostan ranks14 second among the Ural regions as regards15 its manufacturing potential.

The Republic of Bashkortostan offers extensive facilities for exports and import of raw materials, fuel and manufactured item, maintaining trade and business ties with both the West and the East.

The BAL (Bashkir Airlines) carrier connects Ufa with the largest cities in Russia, the post-Soviet republics and abroad.

VOCABULARY

1) to inhabitнаселять

2) from the point of natural conditions – c точки зрения природных условий

3) Bashkir Trans-UralsБашкирское Зауралье

4) to trimукрашать 

5) a basin – бассейн

6) to account – рассматривать (-ся), считать (-ся)

7) a lime-treeлипа 

8) iron oreжелезная руда

9) manganeseмарганец

10) lime-stoneизвестняк

11) oil-related industriesотносящиеся к нефти

12) power generation – энергетическая

13) prominent – известный, видный

14) rank – занимать какое-либо место

15) as regards – что касается, относительно 

MY NATIVE TOWN STERLITAMAK

I live in Russia, in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Our Republic is located1 along the South Urals, forming a natural border between Europe and Asia. There are over 20 cities and towns in the Republic. Sterlitamak is the second largest city of Bashkortostan after Ufa. It was founded in 1766. It stands on the banks of the rivers Sterlya, Belaya, Ashkadar. More than 260 thousand people live there.

Sterlitamak is the main industrial and cultural centre. It is the major centre of chemical industry not only of the Republic of Bashkortostan, but of the whole of Russia.

More than 50 thousand employees2 engage at 500 industries and construction sites.

The largest factories are the "Soda" Joint-Stock Company3, the Petrochemical Plant Joint-Stock Company, the" Kaustik" Joint-Stock Company, the «Avangard» Joint-Stock Company, and the"Kauchuk" Joint-Stock Company.

Machine building4 also remains the main branch of industry. The "Machine-tool Building Factory" Joint-Stock Company produces not only machines, but quite a lot of consumer goods5.

The "Inmash" Concern is known as the "factory of the future". It produces  industrial robots, woods-cutting machines6, shoe-making machines7, mini-motors and other machines.

There is also the Leather-Processing Plant8, the Foot - wear factory9, the Garment Factory10, the Food industry11 companies.

Sterlitamak can be called a city of students. There are 9 industrial vocational schools12, 8 secondary specialized educational institutions, the Pedagogical Institute, the branch of the Ufa State Oil Technical University, the Sterlitamak Law Department of the Bashkir State University, the branch of All-Russia Financial Institute.

Sterlitamak is a city of Sports. Sportsmen and sport fans can make use13 of 4 stadiums, 2 Physical Culture Houses with swimming pools, a ski-jump, gym halls, the city chess and draughts club14, physical-training and fitness centres, the city tourist centre, numerous sport grounds, three children's and teenager's sport schools. There is a Physical Training College.

Sterlitamak is a big cultural centre. There are some theaters there: the Russian Drama Theatre, the Bashkir Theatre, the Dance Theatre, the Bashkir-Tatar Philharmonic Society.

There are some museums, cinema-theatres, the Park of Culture and Recreation, three Culture Palaces, the Republican Culture College.

The city becomes cleaner and more beautiful and very attractive.

I like my native town very much.

VOCABULARY

1) to be located – быть расположенным

2) an employeeслужащий

3) Joint-Stock Companyакционерное общество

4) machine buildingмашиностроение

5) consumer goodsтовары широкого потребления

6) woodcutting machineдеревообрабатывающая машина 

7) shoe-making machines – машины для производства обуви

8) Leather-Processing Plantкожевенный завод

9) the Foot - wear factoryобувная фабрика

10) the Garment Factory – фабрика для шитья одежды

11) the Food industry  - пищевая промышленность

12) vocational school – профессиональная школа

13) to make use ofпользоваться

14) a draughts clubшашечный клуб

Текст № 5.

OUR DUTIES IN THE HOUSE

Our family is not very big. We are only four. My Mum works as a teacher and very often she feels tired. So we usually help her about the house.

Everybody in the family has duties. My Dad goes shopping and cleans the carpets. I tidy my room, wash up and sweep the floor. Sometimes I make tea or coffee for breakfast.

My Mum cooks dinner and lays the table. As you see we are a friendly family and we are ready to help each other.

I would like to say a few words about childrens duties at home. If we want to please our parents, to make them happy, not to upset them, we must perform our most common household chores1. If we do it, the house will look tidy2, clean, neat3 and shiny4. The atmosphere in the house will be friendly and we will give more time to each other, to our hobbies. It will help us to have enough time to go to the pictures (movies) and theatre, to visit the Zoo or the circus, to read interesting books.

Boys and girls have different duties at home. As for boys5, they help their fathers, elder brothers or Grandfathers to repair6 their family car, their flat, broken furniture, to fix simple electric appliances7, such as TV or radio sets, clocks or watches, irons or vacuum cleaners. They can use different tools such as a hammer8, a screw-driver9, a hacksaw10, a plane11, a drill12, an axe13, scissors and a soldering-iron14.

As for girls they have many duties at home as well. They put rubbish into a trashcan and empty it, wash the cutlery15 and the dishes. They must help their Mothers and Grandmothers to lay and clear the table and to serve meals16. They learn how to work with needles, threads17 and scissors.

In our family Mother keeps the house. It takes her a lot of time, but all the members of our family try to help her and share the duties18.

We have a lot of work to do at home. It is necessary to cook meals, to tidy all the rooms, to do the laundry19, to wash up20 and to take away rubbish21 out of a trashcan.

It is very important to keep the house clean and tidy, so we must clean all the rooms regularly. If the room is messy (there is a mess22 in the room), you must fold your clothes23 and put it into the wardrobe, then find the right place for every thing. After that water the flowers, dust and polish the furniture, water the carpets, sweep and wash (clean) the floor. Then you can enjoy your room.

Some people say that washing up isn't pleasant (boring) because you have to wash dirty dishes. Others like it. But washing up is a necessary domestic duty and we wash up after each meal.

First we must clear the table and pile24 everything tidily near the sink. Then you take a dish-cloth and wash glasses, cups, knives, forks, spoons, plates and other dishes. You must, of course, have a lot of hot water and some detergent25; after that you take a tea-towel and wipe everything. If you have a plate-rack, you can put the plates and cups in the rack to dry.

Everybody knows how pleasant it is to have clean clothes and clean bed linen. The family washing is one of the most important duties. Small things can be nicely washed in soapy water, but most people today use detergents.

Many families do all the laundry at home. They have modern washing machines and say that this work is not very difficult. They do one big washing every week26 when bed linen27 and towels are washed. If there is a big yard with wash-lines and it is a fine day, it is good to hang wet clothes and linen out in the fresh air and sunshine. They smell so pleasant when they are dry.

But if you don't like to wash things at home by hand28 or with the help of the washing machine, you can take your washing to a public laundry and fetch29 it as soon as it is ready. Everything will be washed, pressed and your time will be saved.

VOCABULARY

1) household chores - домашние обязанности

2) tidyопрятный, аккуратный

3) neat – приятный

4) shiny - блестящий

5) as for boys – что касается мальчиков

6) to repair - ремонтировать

7) to fix an electric appliance - установить электроприбор

8) a hammer - молоток 

9) a screw-driver - отвертка 

10) a hacksawпила

11) a plane - рубанок 

12) a drill -дрель 

13) an axe  - топор

14) a soldering-iron -паяльник 

15) cutlery - столовые приборы 

16) to serve meals - подавать еду

17) threads - нитки

18) to share the duties - разделять обязанности

19) to do the laundryстирать бельё

20) to wash up - мыть посуду

21) to take away rubbishвыкидывать мусор

22) mess - беспорядок

23) to fold the clothes - свернуть одежду

24) to pile - складывать

25) detergent- моющее средство

26) to do ones washing a week - стирать раз в неделю

27) bed linenпостельное бельё

28) to wash by hand - стирать вручную

29) fetch  - забирать 

Текст № 6.

FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN THE LIFE OF AN ENGINEER

You can't imagine an educated person who doesn't know any foreign language. It is especially important nowadays. Some people learn languages because they need them in their work, others travel abroad, for the third studying languages is a hobby.

Every year thousands of people go from one country to another either on business or for pleasure. And the knowledge of languages opens the door to any foreign country and gives them a possibility to communicate1, to understand people and to be understood.

A real professional cannot do without2 knowing languages, especially English as it is international language. You don't need to know Japanese when you go to Japan or Hindi when you visit India. English is spoken all over the world. You can hear it everywhere: in a street, in shops, at restaurants.

A modern engineer or even a worker deals with3 instruments and machines from other countries. He must be able to read the instruction which is usually written in English.

Scientists and scholars must understand English well because they use foreign literature to write their articles and books. They must speak English fluently to make speeches at international conferences.

Diplomats need foreign languages in their work too. They make contracts4, conclude treaties5, hold negotiations6.

If you want to be a stewardess, a pilot or a businessman you must learn English, the language of international communication. Even a shopgirl or a cashier in a big department store must know at least7 some phrases in English to understand a foreign customer.

Foreign languages develop our mind. They help us to get acquainted8 with new customs and traditions, make it possible to read many books in the original.

Besides, languages are very helpful in establishing friendly relations9 between peoples and nations. Children and young people will understand each other better if they speak one language10.

That's why11 all the pupils should master English or other foreign languages to become a top specialist12 in any branch.

VOCABULARY

1) a possibility to communicate возможность общаться

2) to do without - обойтись

3) to deal with - иметь дело с...

4) to make contract - заключить контракт

5) to conclude treatiesзаключать договоры

6) to hold negotiations - вести переговоры

7) at least - по меньшей мере

8) to get acquainted withпознакомиться с

9) to establish friendly relationsустановить дружественные отношения

10) speak one language – говорить на одном языке

11) That's why – вот почему

12) a top specialist – специалист высшего класса

Текст7.

PROBLEMS OF THE YOUTH

Youth is the time when a person is trying to find his place in the world. And during this search he or she comes across1 different problems, which are as important as those of the adults. The youth of the twenty first century face2 almost the same problems, which were acute3 to their parents when they were young.

One of them is a generation gap4. Every generation is unique in its experience. It has its own ideals and a system of values concerning5 every aspect of human life. Adults6 always complain that the young are not what they were. These words are repeated from generation to generation.

 Undoubtedly7 it is correct. In fact today the young are better educated. They grow up more quickly. They derive joy8 from more freedom. At present the young do not blindly accept9 the ideals of their parents. For them everything that the adults bear in mind10 is past history. And this is inevitable11, because different generations take different directions.

Moreover, the young look forward and the old people look backward. The adults always teach the young how to live. They apply old standards to the new way of life. The past is hanging over them preventing them from appreciating the things around them anew12. The young think that the adults have lost touch13 with everything that is important in life.

They are right, because what is important to the adults is the past. The young know what they want. They prefer to make their own mistakes rather than to listen to the warnings of the adults. The past exists to help the young to avoid unnecessary blurs14. But they do want to have them. The young want to live their own life. They want to overcome15 their own difficulties without turning back. Unfortunately the life of the young is frequently determined by the adults. The adults start the war but the young die in it. The young and adults have different points of view concerning everything. And it generates the conflict of the generations.

In the 19th century Ivan Turgenev in his novel «Fathers and Sons» perfectly illustrated the eternal problem of fathers and children's misunderstanding. I think that parents will never understand their children. Every new generation is different from the one that preceded it. Today the differences are especially considerable. The adults always believe that they know best only because they have been around a bit longer. They don’t want their values to be doubted. The young on the other hand are questioning the assumptions16 of the adults; they suspect that the world created by their predecessors was not the best one.

It is known far and wide that the clash of tastes and value17 between generations occurs in the main in highly developed countries. Occasionally18 it was sharp, especially in the 1960s and 70s in Western Europe and the USA.

I think that the only way to solve this insoluble problem both the young and adults should be tolerant and patient. Despite19 our generation differences there are no clashes of values in our family and my parents are my best friends. They always help me, console20 me, and try to help me to solve my problems.

Another problem of the youth is the relationship of the young people with their friends and beloved. I believe in male friendship, and I doubt that there can be any real female friendship.

I think it is impossible to have a lot of friends. A person can be on good terms21 with his or her classmates, but have only one or two real friends. I believe that real friends will never betray22 each other. They will always understand and help each other. It is true that tolerance is the pledge of friendship23. It is wonderful if your school friend will remain your friend for the rest of your life. Unfortunately, when one enters a university, school friends are often replaced by the new ones.

The problem of love is very important for the young. Today the young fall in love when they reach the age of Romeo and Juliet. Romanticism and idealism very often accompany the love of the young. Their belief in eternal love can end dramatically. Today nobody doubts about the depth of his or her passion24. It is regrettable25, but the young are not always ready to have stable relations. For a happy family life two people must understand and respect each other.

It should be said that the young have other problems as well. They are concerned with education, money, employment, and hobby, spending their free time, communication, and the like. And of course one of the most urgent problems is the accommodations problem26. Few young people in our country have their own apartments. In the main they share the apartments with their parents even after getting married.

VOCABULARY

1) comes across – наталкиваться

2) face – сталкиваться

3)to be acute to – быть острым (о проблемах)

4) generation gap – разногласия между поколениями

5) a system of values concerning – система ценностей, касающаяся

6) adults - взрослые

7) undoubtedly – несомненно, бесспорно

8) to derive joy – получать радость

9) blindly accept – слепо принимать

10) to bear in mind – помнить что-н., иметь что-н. ввиду

11) inevitable – неизбежный

12) anew – заново

13) to lose touch – терять связь

14) unnecessary blurs – ненужные воспоминания

15) to overcome – преодолеть

16) an assumption – предположение

17) the clash of tastes and value – совпадение вкусов и ценностей

18) occasionally – время от времени, изредка

19) despite – несмотря на

20) to console – утешать

21) to be on good terms with smb. – поддерживать хорошие отношения с кем-л.

22) to betray – предавать

23) (pledge) of friendship – (обязательство) гарантия дружбы

24) passion – страсть

25) regrettable – прискорбный, достойный сожаления

26) accommodations problemsпроблемы жилья

Текст № 8.

SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS

Science is a sphere of people's activity. Those who are involved in1 science are called scientists2 and scholars3. Scientists deal with exact4 and natural sciences5: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geography. Scholars study History, Art, Literature and Languages.

The aim of their work is to understand the fundamental laws of nature and society, to analyse and systematize the data obtained6 experimentally. They work hard to investigate unknown phenomena in various branches of science.

Usually scientists and scholars working in the same field are united in Research Laboratories7, Institutes8 and Centres9. If problems are of great importance (significance) International Research Centres or Counsels10 are set up. They join their efforts11 to work out different programmes which help to solve serious problems of our time. Among these problems are ecology, medicine, space exploration12, new sources of energy and many others.

Research is a noble occupation13, though it is seldom profitable14 or rewarding15. Not everyone can become a real scientist. You should work hard to develop уоur abilities to watch and see, to examine and interpret16, to be able to analyse and come to certain conclusions17. You should read a lot and accumulate profound knowledge18.

The history of the mankind gives us a lot of examples of great scientists who started making their scientific career since childhood.

For example the greatest English scientist Charles Darwin knew the names of all the planets when he was eight. He had wonderful collections of plants, shells, birds' eggs and insects. Charles was fond of making chemical experiments near his house. While studying at Cambridge University he continued to study nature, collecting insects. This hobby of his childhood led him to his wonderful ideas of evolution.

Another outstanding scientist Isaac Newton was known19 as a silent thinking boy. He played little with other children giving all his time to Mathematics, Mechanics and Physics. Such curiosity and diligence20 resulted in21 his amazing22 discovery of the most fundamental law of the Universe - the law of gravity23.

VOCABULARY

1) to be involved in -быть вовлеченным в...

2) a scientist - ученый (занимающийся точными и естественными науками)

3) a scholar - ученый (занимающийся гуманитарными науками)

4) exact science - точная наука

5) natural science - точная наука

6) to obtain data - получать данные

7) Research Laboratory - исследовательская лаборатория

8) Research Institute - научно-исследовательский центр

9) Research Centre - научно-исследовательский центр

10) International Research Counsel  - международный совет по научным исследованиям

11) to join efforts - объединять усилия

12) space exploration – исследование космоса

13) a noble occupation – благородное занятие

14) profitable – прибыльный, выгодный

15) rewarding – приносящий удовлетворение

16) to interpret - объяснять, интерпретировать

17) to come to a conclusion - прийти к выводу 

18) accumulate profound knowledgeнакапливать глубокие знания

19) to be known - быть известным

20) curiosity and diligence – любопытство и усердие (прилежание)

21) to result in - привести к (иметь результатом)

22) amazing – поразительный, изумительный

23) the law of gravity - закон всемирного тяготения

Текст № 9.

MY PLANS FOR THE FUTURE

When you leave school you understand that the time to choose your future profession has come. It's not an easy task to make the right choice of a job1. It is known that each school leaver has to make serious decisions2.

It is a dilemma for the whole family. Fathers usually want their children to follow their footsteps3. Mothers don't want their sons and daughters to leave the native town. So they persuade4 kids to enter local colleges and universities.

But it's extremely5 difficult for a person to solve this problem. On the one hand6 young people want to acquire7 and accumulate knowledge, develop their skills. On the other hand it is not easy to make yourself study hard for many years. In addition they want to earn as much money as possible. Each young man would like to do flourishing business8/and to establish and run his own company9.

To make a right choice you should consider your traits of character10. To become a good doctor you must be patient11, caring12 and kind. The teacher's work requires love for children13, profound knowledge14 of subjects and the ability to explain. Detective's job is very stressful15. He must be brave, fair, witty and strong.

Since childhood kids16 have been trying to choose their way in life. There are too many wonderful professions around. Very often they change their mind17. Little girls, for example wish to be actresses (stars), mega models (top models). Boys dream to become cosmonauts (astronauts), presidents, outstanding sportsmen. As years pass we understand that all the jobs are necessary and useful. And the most important thing for a person is to do any work professionally.

VOCABULARY

1) to make the right choice of a jobсделать правильный выбор работы

2) to make a decision - принять решение 

3) to follow one's footsteps - пойти по чьим-то стопам 

4) to persuadeубеждать

5) extremelyчрезвычайно

6) on the one (other) handс одной (другой) стороны

7) to acquire - приобретать

8) to do flourishing business - иметь процветающий бизнес

9) to run a company - управлять компанией

10) traits of characterчерты характера

11) patient - терпеливый

12) caringзаботливый

13) to require love for childrenтребовать любви к детям

14) profound knowledgeглубокие знания

15) stressfulнапряжённый, fair - справедливый, witty – остроумный

16) a kidребёнок

17) to change ones mind - передумывать

Текст № 10.

PEOPLE AND THEIR RELATIONS:

APPEARANCE AND CHARACTER

The attitude of people to a person depends on many things: his character, mind, manners, behaviour, abilities and appearance. If a person is good-looking he feels more confident. Unfortunately, to be pretty or handsome doesn't mean to be happy. Very often beautiful people are stupid, stubborn1 and arrogant.2 And unattractive people can be intelligent, kind and generous. That's why people say: "Do not judge by appearance".

I have many friends, but Jane Brown and Andy Johnson are my special friends3. Andy is tall (short) and lean. Jane is middle-sized (of medium height). She isn't slim, she is pretty plump. Andy is strong and well-built.4 As for Jane, she doesn't care about her figure. She is never on a diet5 and hates doing morning exercises. That's why she often puts on weight.

John took after6 his father in appearance and • character. His face is long and thin (square). His features are regular and stern7 a bit. His complexion8 is ruddy (fair, dark, clear). His forehead9 is broad (doomed) and high (law, narrow). He has got large (small) wide-set (close-set) and deep -set eyes (bulging eyes10) They are hazel (green, steel-grey). People remember his eyes because they are piercing (curious, prying11). His nose is straight (aquiline12, hooked). His chin is pointed (protruding, round, square). His cheeks are hollow (plump, chubby). He has got thin (full, thick) lips. He is a brunette (blond). He has got chestnut (auburn13, red, dark, black) straight thick (thin) hair.

Jane looks like (resembles) her mother. She is a blue-eyed girl. Everybody admires her expressive shining eyes. She has got thick long curving eyelashes. Her eyebrows are pencilled (bushy, arched), her nose is small and snub (turned up). Jane has plump cheeks with dimples in them. She never worries about her hairdo (hairstyle), because she has got beautiful, long, thick, curly (wavy) hair. She thinks she would look nicer with a short haircut, and she wants to change the colour of her hair, but her mother doesn't let her to do it. To look more attractive she sometimes wears makeup: she puts a little black mascara on her eyelashes and some eye shadow on her eyelids. She hates lipstick and never applies it (puts it on) because she believes that her well-cut lips are good enough.

As for their characters, I like them both. Let me give a touch14 on Jane's character. It is easy to get along with her. People find her sociable15 and easygoing.16 Nobody can call her selfish (unselfish), greedy (generous), ill-bred (well-bred), angry (kind). She is reserved, modest (shy) and good-tempered (hot-tempered). I think she is of a romantic nature, she is interested in music, art, theatre. She is keen on17 literature especially she likes poems. She is good at writing verses.

A lot of my classmates envy that my best (good, bosom, true, faithful) friend is Andy. I respect many traits of his character. He is honest, brave (courageous),cheerful with a good sense of humour. He is always the life and soul18 of the party.

I am proud of my friends because they are caring, faithful (sympathetic) and sincere. They are ready to help you when it is necessary.

We have much in common, we spend plenty of time together and 1 appreciate their charming (magnetic, dynamic, striking, strong) personalities more than their appearance (looks).

VOCABULARY

1) stubborn - упрямый 

2) arrogant - надменный 

3) a special friends - лучший друг 

4) well-built - крепкий, хорошо сложенный

5) to be on a diet - сидеть на диете

6) to take after - унаследовать от •   

7) stern - суровый

8) complexion - цвет лица

9) forehead – лоб

10) bulging eyes - глаза навыкате

11) prying eyes - любопытные глаза

12) aquiline - орлиный

13) auburn - темно-рыжий

14) to give a touch - затронуть, коснуться (в беседе)

15) sociable - общительный

16) easy-going - легкий в общении

17) to be keen on - увлекаться

18) to be life and soul - быть душой

Текст № 11.

ENGINEERING PROFESSION

An engineer is one of the most ancient1 professions. From the old ages humanity2 tries to make its life easy. For example people invented3 a mill, because they did not want to grind4 grain5 by hands; keg factor, for transporting hard things. This people were ancient engineers. So the contribution6 of engineers to improving7 of our life is hard to exaggerate8.

In our time science and technique develop by great temps and this progress can not be stopped. Mechanical engineering, chemistry, physics, mathematics, genetics, robot building - all this and other sciences help us make our life more comfort.

On this conditions development and modernization engineer's profession become not only important, but required9. An engineer makes investigations10, improvements and control. An engineer must know market for the results of his activity were maximum good11 in each field of his work. An engineer must learn market, before he makes investigations and offer new methods. On this aspect he looks like on economist. This is needed for his work to be useful and it has demand12. Let's take, for example, such field as robot building. This branch of industry develops especially with high temps in our times, trying to automate different production processes more as it can. An engineer of automation is among those who is in this field. His task is to decide problems with minimum expenses13 and with maximum results.

Besides learning of market can help in installation14 of new technology in production more successfully.

For example, when first automobiles have been produced, people hadn't trust15 new kind of transporting. But soon automobiles became popular and demand on them began to grow, and it is growing in our time too. This has obliged16 to develop the technology of their building. And so many years later automotive conveyer substituted17 hard work, robots work instead of people, and each of them make it's own function.

For example, let's take the development of computer techniques. A man always wanted to make his work easier on complex calculations. The steps of improving of calculations are abacus18, calculator and computer. Computer can make millions of operations to second but a man can't. And engineers invented a computer. So an engineer depends on market, and market depends on an engineer. That is why the profession of an engineer valuable19 in the modern world.

VOCABULARY

1) ancient-древний

2) humanity-человечество 

3) to invent-изобретать

4) to grind-молоть, измельчать

5) grain-зерно

6) the contribution-вклад

7) to improve-улучшать

8) to exaggerate-преувеличивать

9) to require-требовать

10) to make investigations-делать исследование

11) An engineer must know market for the results of his activity were maximum goodИнженер должен знать рынок, чтобы результаты его деятельности были предельно хорошими

12) to have demand-быть востребованным

13) minimum expenses-минимальные затраты

14) installation-внедрение

15) trust-доверять

16) to oblige-обязывать

17) to substitute-заменять

18) abacus-счеты

19) is valuable-быть ценным

Текст № 12.

MY FUTURE SPECIALITY

I am a day student of the first course of the Sterlitamak Branch of the Ufa State Petroleum Technical University. My speciality is "Automation of Technological Processes and Productions". Many enterprises1 are needed in such specialists. Our University trains highly skilled2 specialists in this field. It trains specialists with a wide theoretical and practical outlook3.

"Automation" is a word coined4 in the 1940-s to describe processes by which machines do tasks previously5 performed by people.

Advances6 in industrial production of some goods7 need in high-accurate processes8 of manufacturing, assembling, etc.

In five years9 I'll graduate from the University and shall become an automation engineer. During the first two years we are taught general subjects, such as, Physics, Mathematics, Strength of materials, Theoretical mechanics, English, etc. In a year we shall begin specializing in one or another field we like best.

In our time computer technologies occupy10 an important part of the industry. All machines work by computer commands. And machines talk to each other in a binary code11. We will study many subjects of this field in final courses, such as, "New Computer Technologies", "Languages of programming", etc.

The higher school has a specific task to train engineers of a new type who would combine fundamental knowledge with a high professional level and practical training in the specific field of the national economics. I like my speciality and I'm sure it will be useful for the humanity.

At present automation of the industry is vital12.

When I finish my study, I'll work in an enterprise on my speciality. There are many enterprises of this field in our city, such as "Chemical factory", joint stock company13 "Kaustik", joint stock company "Kauchuk", etc.

VOCABULARY

1) enterprises-предприятие

2) highly-skilledвысококвалифицированный

3) outlook-взгляд

4) to coin-придумывать

5) previously-ранее

6) advances-продвижение

7) goods-товары

8) high-accurate processesвысокоточные процессы

9) in five years-через пять лет

10) occupy-занимать

11) a binary code-бинарный код

12) vital - жизненно-важный

13) joint-stock companyакционерное общество

MY FUTURE SPECIALITY

From the times I was a pupil I got interested1 in sciences and most of all in physics and mathematics. My teachers recommended me the right books to read and supplied2 me with different bits of equipment3 to set up4 my own experiments, let alone the participation in different competitions in Physics and mathematics. Later on I got interested in engineering and after leaving school I firmly5 decided to enter the faculty of general engeneering6 of the Ufa Oil University and become an engineer. Now I am a first-year student of the mechanical department. Our University is one of the major7 centres for training engineers for different branches of our industry.

    In five years I shall graduate from8 the University and shall become a mechanical engineer. I like my future speciality and study with great interest. During the first two years we are taught9 general subjects, such as, Physics, Mathematics, Strength of materials10, theoretical mechanics, English. In a year we shall begin specializing in one or another field we like best. I am deeply interested in Engineering. Engineering demands a sound11 training in general sciences particularly in physics, mathematics and chemistry. So I work hard. At the last examination session I passed all my exams with good marks. A friend of mine is also interested in engineering and looking forward to12 become a mechanical engineer. It is our future speciality. Our work will deal with13 designs, constructions and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices used in industry and everyday life. By the way14 my friend is very good at15 English and often helps me with it since I'm only a beginner.

VOCABULARY

1) to get interested inзаинтересоваться

2) to supplyснабжать, обеспечивать

3) bits of equipmentзд. детали оборудования (части оборудования)

4) to set upпроводить

5) firmlyтвердо

6) general engineeringобщетехнический

7) majorглавный

8) graduate fromвыпускаться из 

9) to be taughtобучаться

10) strenght of  materials – сопротивление материалов

11) sound – глубокий

12) to look forward to – ожидать с нетерпением

13) deal with – иметь дело с; иметь отношение к

14) by the wayкстати

15) to be good at - успевать по

MY FUTURE SPECIALITY

I am a first (second) - year student of the Ufa Oil University. I study at the faculty of "Chemical Technology of Organic Substances and Compounds". I am very fond of chemistry. I wish to become a specialist in petroleum refinery engineering1. Students entering our faculty may specialize in various branches, such as organic synthesis, reception of rubber and other compounds of petroleum.

I wish to become a specialist in petroleum refinery engineering. Those who will choose the branch of petroleum and refining engineering will deal with designing and operating various plants with work at research institutes and laboratories. Besides practicing in the Institute laboratories students of our department are to get some practical training at various refineries of the country.

A refinery is a huge chemical enterprise2. Distillation units3 are the heart of the refinery, every distillation unit consists of at least two distillation towers4, a tube still5, heat exchangers6, pumps7, etc.

One of the distillation towers is operated at atmospheric pressure, the other one is operated at vacuum. Pumps deliver8 preheated crude oil to the tube still where it is heated to 360°C at atmospheric pressure. Heated oil is then passed through the distillation tower. Lighter hydrocarbon vapours flown up the tower, are removed at different levels and condense9 in specials coolers.

Heavier fractions are accumulated at the bottom as residue10, which undergoes further dissipation11 in the vacuum tower.

Within the refinery one may see many other installations for cracking, dehydrogenation, refining and alkalizing huge storage vessel pumping stations, etc. All the units are remotely12 controlled from a single centre.

The whole process of obtaining valuable products from crude oil is called refining. As a result of refining a great variety of products is obtained, such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, lubricating oils13, fuels, coke, paraffin and gas for synthesis of petrochemicals and many others.

VOCABULARY

1) petroleum refinery engineeringнефтеочистительное производство

2) a huge chemical enterpriseогромное химическое предприятие

3) distillation unitsдистилляционное оборудование

4) a towerбашня

5) a tube stillтруба

6) heat exchangersтеплообменники

7) a pump – насос

8) to deliver – доставлять, передавать

9) to condenseоседать

10) residueосадок

11) dissipationрассеивание

12) remotelyотдалённо

13) lubricating oils - смазочные масла

MY FUTURE SPECIALITY

Environmental Protection and Rational Use of Nature Resources

I am a first-year student of the Ufa Oil University. I wish to become a specialist in environmental protection and rational use of nature resources1.

Environmental protection attracts2 keen3 and apprehensive attention all over the world now. Engineers can not stay apart4 when there is a dangerous5 evolution of the environment. The ecological crisis which takes place6 all around is the result and price7 which man has to pay for scientific and technological progress. At the same time it should be noted8 that ecological disbalance is determined9 by social, historical, natural and economic specifics10, by the level of development in the economy, science and technology. And to go on11, some economic managers are passive, negligent12 or simply reluctant13 to abide14 by the scientifically substantiated15 nature protection measures. So our task as engineers in ecology is to control their actions in this respect16, first, and in more wide sense17, to master modern scientific basis of links between enterprises and environment. In 4 years I will become a full-fledged18 specialist and I will try to do my best to care about protection of the atmospheric air, health, mineral wealth, forests, waters, and land, animal and plant kingdoms19.

After graduation from the University I can work in research and design offices, plants, practically in all fields of industry, and first of all20, in chemical and petrochemical ones.

In order to become a highly qualified specialist I must work hard and perfectly know the fundamental engineering disciplines, I should have sound21 knowledge of special subjects such as ecology, ecological monitoring of environmental surroundings, foundations of chemical toxicology, design and ecological analysis, economics, technology of industrial ecology.

VOCABULARY

1) resources-ресурсы

2) to attract-привлекать

3) keen-острый

4) stay apart-оставаться в стороне 

5) dangerous-опасный 

6) to take place-происходить

7) price-цена

8) should be noted-нужно отметить

9) determine-определять

10) specifics-особенности

11) to go on-продолжая

12) negligent-небрежный

13) reluctant-неохотный (нежелающий)

14) to abide-соблюдать

15) substantiated-обоснованный

16) in this respect-в этом отношении

17) wide sense-широкий смысл

18) full-fledgedсостоявшийся

19) kingdoms-церковь

20) first of all-прежде всего

21) sound-глубокий

Текст № 13.

OIL AND OIL INDUSTRY

Petroleum is the name of a mineral oil. Oil comes from under the ground. Crude oil comes from the wells or boreholes1. Boreholes are often very deep. The steel framework2 over the well is the derrick3. From the derrick the machinery drills4 holes through rock5, earth or sand. Oil usually flows freely but men control its natural flow6. The natural flow of oil is the result of the pressure of the natural gas in oil or the result of the pressure between the petroleum and the roof of the rock above it.

Crude oil contains various materials, liquids7. By the process of refining we obtain petrol, paraffin, and other products from crude oil. We obtain9 various fuels from it too. Fuels10 drive ships, planes, buses and so on. Diesel engines burn11 oil fuel. Many tractors burn diesel oil. Jet 12engines burn kerosene (paraffin oil).

Nowadays oil industry is an advanced, highly mechanized and reliable sector of the economy. It has highly productive rigs13 that can drill down to oil and gas deposits lying at depths of more than six kilometers. Today more than 2,000 products are made from oil: fuel for aircraft and for internal combustion engines14, fuel for boilers and furnaces15, lubricants16, bitumen for the manufacture of asphalt, lacquers, solvents17, and so on. Oil byproducts18 are used in making plastics and synthetic substances.

Work is in progress to set up a19 major oil industry center in Western Siberia, to raise oil extraction20, to contract 21gas pipelines to deliver gas to the Urals and the European part of the Russia and also pipelines to oil refineries in Siberia, Kazakhstan and the European part of the country.

Regular oil prospecting22 throughout the country began in the thirties. Geologists discovered deposits23 in the Ural-Volga area. In 1932 discoveries followed one after another in this large area. A new oil center “The Second Baku” arose between the Volga and the Urals in 1939.

The rapid24 development of the Ural-Volga resources made it possible to supply the Russian Army with fuel and lubricants in the difficult years of the Great Patriotic War.

The Ural-Volga field comprises more than 350 deposits and accounts for over half of the Russia oil production.

The expansion of the Ural-Volga extraction industry was particularly rapid in the post-war years.

In the sixties, geologists discovered rich deposits of oil on the vast area of West Siberia, in the Tyumen and Tomsk regions.

Despite25 the rigorous climate, the oilmen and builders harnesses26 the West Siberia deposits to the national economy in a short space of time.

Dozens of27big research institutes and design organizations appeared to solve important scientific problems, to plan and analyse the exploitation of the deposits, and to improve drilling and pumping techniques. The oil districts have their own research institutes and design offices.

VOCABULARY

1) wells or boreholesскважина

2) framework – конструкция

3) the derrick – буровая вышка

4) to drill – бурить, сверлить

5) rock – горная порода

6) natural flow – естественное течение

7) liquids – жидкости

8) to contain – содержать

9) obtain – получать

10) fuels – топливо

11) burn – снимать

12) jet – реактивный

13) rigs – снаряжение, оборудование

14) internal combustion engines – двигатель внутреннего сгорания

15) furnaces – печи

16) lubricants – смазки

17) solvents – растворители

18) byproducts – побочные продукты

19) to set up – учреждать

20) extraction – добывание, добыча

21) to contract – приобретать

22) (to) prospect – (исследовать) , разведка

23) deposits – залежи

24) rapid – быстрый

25) despite – несмотря на

26) harness – использовать

27) dozens of – дюжины (чего-либо)

Текст № 14.

ROLE OF AUTOMATION IN TECHNOLOGY

Automation plays an important part in the great advances in technology. Automation, properly1 coordinated with other phases of technology, can substantially2 contribute to high productive efficiency3. In Russia, mechanization of production operations and their automation is one of the most important problems and that is being done in this sphere at present greatly exceeds4 what has been close in the past,

Advanced automation is impossible without computers. Computer science is a relatively new and exciting5 field of study and research. It is a broad discipline, covering logic design, hardware6, and the theory of computation, numerical analysis, programming and computer application.

There are different kinds of computers. Some do only one job over and over again. These are special — purpose computers. One such computer automatically controls the movements of anti-aircraft cannon7. It was built for this purpose alone, and cannot do anything else. But there are some computers that can do many different jobs. They are called general-purpose computers. These are the "big brains" that solve the most difficult problems of science. They answer questions about rockets and planes, bridges and ships long before these things are even built.

Today there are computers small enough to carry in one's pocket or about the size of a typewriter8. These new computers are called personal computers. Computers help our space programme, our armed forces, our business and industry, sports and medicine. Computers are the most efficient servants man has ever had and there is no limit for their explication in improving our lives and saving time for leisure (rest and recreation).

Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complicated mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. As computers work accurately and at high speeds, they save research workers years of hard work. This whole process, by which machines can be used to work for used to work for us, is called automation. Automation will have important social consequences9.

Robots can perform an almost infinite variety of tasks. ln the research laboratory, the office, and the factory, thousands of robots are already at work.

Now assume that somebody develops a robot to coordinate the activities "of all the robots in a factory. It would be a sort of super-robot, whose special function would be to see that all the lesser robots did their job correctly. If you took a robot like that and put it in charge10 of a factory, you would have "automation". as a matter of fact, automation is not just a thing of the future. Super robots have already been developed and put into operation11 in a number of places. The result of the idea to connect all the robots together with one control system is the automated assembly line.

From the automated engine shop12.

In the engine shop, rows and rows of machines can be seen. They grind13, drill, ream14, polish, and perform dozens of other operations. But not a machine operator can be soon.

They can't be seen because there aren't any. These machine tools are all robot-run15. A roughcast16 engine, fresh from the foundry, enters the machine shop on a belt. The belt moves it under one machine. Reamers17 drop down18 and clean out the cylinders' holes, cutting and grinding the metal to the exact size. The engine moves on. Drill presses19 drop down, bore holes where they are needed, and withdraw20. As the engine moves down the line, tappets21, cylinders, crankshafts22 and spark plugs23 are added. Then generator, carburetor, and other parts are added. At the end of the line a robot crane picks up the engine and puts it on a belt for transfer to the main assembly line.

In another part of the factory great sheets of metal are put into giant rollers. The rollers twist24, bend25 doors and bodies. These, too, are automatically assembled, then moved to the main assembly line. Each machine must be set so that it will co-operate with all other machines in the factory.

Automation  starts as  the result  of months  and years of planning by  engineers (using computers,  by the way). Automation begins with a team of highly skilled men, automation experts, programmers.  They consult with the people who run a factory about the type of operation desired. They prepare a master plan. After the green light is given on the master plan, there are months of detail planning. A medium or large computer is brought in to help solve some of the complicated problems. One of its tasks will be to keep track26 of production scheduling and inventory control. When you have hundreds of machines working on thousands of items every day, it becomes impossible for human clerks to keep things under control. In the first place, you would have to have too many clerks. In the second place, even with enough clerks, they could not possibly get together and intergrate - combine their information fast enough to do any good. What is needed is a controller robot. It can receive masses of information in a short time and come up with new requirements - parts, machines, raw materials, and men.

VOCABULARY

1) properly – зд. соответствующим образом

2) substantially – существенно

3) efficiency – производительность

4) to exceed – превосходить

5) exiting – вызывающий интерес

6) hardware – аппаратная часть (физические, электронные и электромеханические устройства)

7) anti-aircraft cannon – противовоздушное оружие

8) typewriter – пишущая машина

9) consequence – последствие

10) to put smth. in charge – снабдить/ оборудовать чем-либо (чего-либо)

11) to put into operation – вводить в эксплуатацию

12) engine shop – мастерская по сборке двигателей

13) grindточить

14) ream – расширять (разбуривать) скважину ; зд. Отверствие

15) to be robot-run быть управляемым роботом

16) roughcastгрубо отлитый

  1.  reamerрасширитель
  2.  drop down опускаться
  3.  drill press перфоратор
  4.  withdrawизвлекать, вынимать, удалять, отводить
  5.  tappetкулачок, палец
  6.  crankshaftколенчатый вал
  7.  spark plug свеча
  8.  twist закручивать
  9.  bend сгибать
  10.  keep trackпроследить

15. BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE

A business letter.

There are certain rules of writing letters. The paper for a letter must be absolutely pure, with even edges. It is desirable to have the firm form of the letter with an emblem of the firm, with its complete name, the post and telegraphic address, with a telephone number, fax and bank properties.

The business letters are printed on a computer on a face side of the sheet. The pages are numbered in the Arabian figures, except for the first. Width of a field from the left side of a sheet must be not less than 2 cm. The text is printed through 1,5-2 intervals. The paragraph begins with a red line, with a deviation of 5 intervals from the edge. It is desirable to avoid division. In the right top comer under the address of the organization, which sends the letter the date of departure should be put.

If it is not the first letter to your partner, it must begin with the polite reference to the last letter, received from him.

If you write to the partner for the first time, it is necessary to begin with the performance of the firm, its purposes and tasks. The text of mis material must be in the language of your partner or in English. The letter ends with the words of gratitude for the cooperation. And of course with: "Sincerely yours", etc.

The signature is put on the right party under the formula of politeness. The surname of the signing man is printed under his hand-written signature.

About envelopes. Abroad all large firms have envelopes, on which the same items of information as on the form are repeated. The firm envelope relieves you of the necessity to inform the return address. Abroad the order of writing of an address is as following: first comes "whom", then "where". The first position of the address is the surname of the addressee with the initials before it and one of reductions: Mr (if it is a man) or Mrs (if it is a woman). The second position of the address is the post of your addressee. It indicates that the letter was not accepted as personal. If the addressee at the given moment is absent, the letter will be opened by his assistant. If you want to keep the content of the letter in a confidence, after the surname it is necessary to specify: private (personal, confidential). The following position of the address is name of the firm. Here it is possible to apply the following reductions:

Company - Co.

Corporation - Corp.

Department - Dept.

Incorporated - Inc.

The number of the house and the name of the street, the name of the city, the name of the state (for the USA, India, etc.) come after. The address end with the postal index and the name of the country.

The letter to a foreign partner has some canons. For example, the letter begins with recurrence in the left top comer of the address written on an envelope. From the right side and a little below of the address they write the date of departure of the letter. For example: 12 December 1997 December 12, 1997

12th December 1997

December 12th, 1997

Reductions of dates such as 12/XII1997 or 12.12.1997, which are accepted by us, in the international correspondence, are not used. Here and in the text of the letter only the reductions of some months are accepted:

January - Jan.

February - Feb.

April - Apr.

September - Sept.

October - Oct.

November - Nov.

December - Dec.

From the left side they write an appeal Dear Mr or Dear Mrs and the surname of the addressee. After the introductory reference in the English correspondence comma is put, and in the correspondence with the addressee from the USA colon and hyphen are put (Dear Mr ..., / Gentleman : -).

By the following line after a designation "Re" (Reference) in business correspondence briefly the theme of the letter is designate, for example:

Re: 1997 Moscow Book Fair In business letters it is accepted to write with the large letter:

•   proper nouns, and also adjectives designating the national and state accessory (Russian, English, French etc);

•    words in the names of firms and organizations, departments of organizations; words in a designation of a borrowed post (Chief Engineer, Director etc);

•   words designating names of cities, republics, streets, areas, areas, hotels, and also numeration of floors, apartments, rooms (12 Wall Street, London, Hotel International, Room 346 etc);

•   the complete and reduced names of months and days of week (Saturday, March, Dec. etc);

•   the names of the goods, trade marks and some documents (Iron, Coal, Bills of Lading, Charter Party etc).

To write long letters in the business correspondence is not accepted. If your letter is not located in one page, at the end of the sheet it is necessary to put: (continued over) or (see overleaf),

Usually letters end by words Sincerely Yours or Yours and signature with the indication under it of your surname and post.

If you are, for example, on nonresident business trip and have dictated the answer to the urgent letter to your assistant on the phone, he must put the letters pp (per procurationem) against your surname, sign the letter himself and attribute below: Dictated by Mr <... > and signed in his absence.

A BUSINESS LETTER

Mr. A. Green,

Manager,

Co. British Telecom,

109 Kingsway st, London,

126783 UK.

4 February 2002 Dear Mr. Green,

We would like to inform you that Mr. Petrov is arriving in Little Rock on the 14th February to begin talks with you.

Please make the necessary hotel reservation for him and let us know the name of hotel.

Thank you for your cooperation.

Yours faithfully, Mr.Ivanov.

A REPLY

Mr. Ivanov,

Manager,

Co. Mobile Tele Systems

14 Peace st, Moscow,

456321 Russia,

5 February 2002 Dear Mr. Ivanov,

We regret to inform you that we cannot reserve the hotel

accommodation for Mr. Petrov for the week of the 14th February. Our three hotels are completely booked up for the week. They have no rooms available because the National Word Processors Association will be holding their convention in Little Rock during the week of the 14th February. As you will surely understand they have to reserve as many rooms as possible for the members of the Association.

We propose to postpone your visit for a week. We can safely book a room for Mr. Petrov for the 21st February. We hope mis will suit you and we look forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours faithfully, Mr.Green.

With the development of industry1, technology, trade and economic ties among the countries and ordinary people a great volume of business3 is done by mail. It is true that the telephone telegraph, telex and fax do speed transactions5, but they also run up expenses6 to such an extent7 that practical businessman and economic people use these modem means of communication for mailers requiring immediate action or messages which can be expressed briefly.

Business letters concern8 us in our daily living, especially those of us who live abroad and deal with foreigners.

People write business letters9 in many situations: concluding contracts, booking i seat in an airplane, reserving hotel accommodation, booking theatre tickets, writing order – letters10, letters of inquiry11 and claim letters12 (letters of complaint) covering letters13, letters of confirmation14, letters of guarantee15. A business letter, like a friendly or social letter, should make a favorable impression. In order that a    letter may create this impression, it should be neatly written or typed16, properly spaced17 on the page and correctly folded18 in the envelope19.

The parts of a business Letter. The basic outline for a business letter is that of any letter: the heading20, the inside address21, the salutation22, the body of the letter, the complimentary close and the signature. If you forget something you mean to say in the letter, put it in a PS at the bottom of the page.

Vocabulary

1) development of industry  - paзвитие промышленности
2) volume  - объем

3) a great volume of business  - большой объем дел  

4) to speed  -ускорять

5) to speed transactions -ускорять дело 

6) to run up expenses  -увеличивать расходы

7) to a great extent  -в значительной степени          

8) to concern   -касаться                                                  

9) letter    - письмо, буква  

10) order-letter -письмо-заказ  
11) inquiry letter -письмо-запрос                         
12) claim letter  -письмо-жалоба
13) covering  letter -сопроводительное письмо    
14) letter of confirmation  -письмо подтверждение

15) letter of guarantee  -гарантийное письмо
16) to type -печатать на машине
17) to space  -размещать
18) to fold-сгибать
19) envelope -   конверт? обложка                                                                        -конверт

20) heating  -  заголовок

21) inside  -адрес получателя

22) salutation  -приветствие




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19. Тождество 2Тождественно равные выражения
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