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he ws the son of Zhnibek Territory- Zhyik river Syrdriy Ulytu Blkhsh lke nd the prt of Zhetisu

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The first Kazakh Khans. 

The Kazakh khanate - the Kazakh state formed as a result of disintegration of Golden Horde in territory modern Kazahstan. The first Kazakh khans. Kerey khan 1465 – 1474, Zhanibek khan 1474 – 1480, Buryndyk khan (son of Kerey) 1480 – 1511, Kasym khan (son of Zhanibek) 1511 – 1522. The first Kazakh khans. 

The Kazakh khanate in the XVI century(the political activities of Kasym khan,Haq Nazar khan,Tayke khan)

The Kazakh khanate in the XVI century (the political activity of Qasym khan, Haq Nasar khan, Tauke khan)

Qasym khan (1511-1521) he was the son of Zhanibek. Territory: Zhayik river, Syrdariya, Ulytau, Balkhash lake and the part of Zhetisu.

Qasym khan’s aim: joining the Syrdariya river town.

His conquests: 15/0-with M.Shaibani in Sygnak, but he lost and run away to Samarkand.

15/3-Qasym khan captured Sairam.

In Kazakh khanate time KZ khanate expanded and the number of population increased 1 million. Own popularity and political and political weight in the modern Eura-Asiasn scene Kazakh khanate received during the Kazakh khanate the first major state, which established diplomatic relations with the Kazakh khanate was the Russian empire (Vasiliy III 1505-1533)e that time Kazakh khanate became khnown as a separate ethnic group in Western Europe. By legends the name Kazakh khanate legitimize the establishment of a set known as “qasym khannyn kaska zholy” (чистая дорога хана Касыма) which were not recorded in the form of a written sources. This law considered from 5 chapters.

HaqNasar khan (1538-1580)

He continued his father’s policy directed at strengthening the khanate. He began to unite the KZ land. He returned to the northern part of the KZ khanate the Sary-Arka. Starting compaign against the Nogai Horde, he won in NOgai town Saraishyk and its surrounding KZ territory. In struggle with khiva tribe, Mangyshlak(Mangystau) was captured by HaqNasar khan. He started against Mogulistan with aim to final inclusion of Semirech’e to structure of Kazakh khanate. So at the end Mogulistan was defeat and Semirech’e was under the KZ. Also Haq-Nasar khan had war with Bukhara. But ruler of Bukhara Abdulakh concluded alliance with sultan Shifai and was against HaqNasar khan.

The importance of HaqNasar khan’s policy: 
1 Widening og Kz territory

2 Became known as separate khanate

3 khan became more powerfull

Tauke khan’ s time  saw the continuing struggle of Kazakhs against the Zhongar khanate. In 1680, Zhongars defeated Kazakhs at Sayram and took control of several cities. In 1697, Tsewang Rabtan became the leader of the Zhongar khanate (1709, 1711-1712, 1714, 1718), He also known for the refining the Kazakh code of laws and reissuing it under the title :Jetu Jargi”. With Tauke khan’s death in 17818, the KZ khanate splintered into three :hordes”-the Great, Middle and Small hordes. 

1. The political situation during the rule of Tauke khan. Khan Tauke’s code Jhety Jharga. 
In the sixties kazah-dzhungar collisions were limited to small skirmishes, but during the rule of Galdane-Boshoktu large-scale military operations have renewed. The son of the Zhangir-khan - the Tauke-khan (1680-1715) - could not stop dzhungars and in 1681 Galdan’s army have passed the river Shu. As a result of campaigns 1683-84 has been taken and destroyed to Sauries and dzhungars have intruded in Fergana valley. Wearisome war with the strong opponent for pastures has weakened the Kazakh khanate. Despite separate victories in large battles, Kazakhs gradually lost Ertisu, Tarbagataju, and Zhetysu..

Zheti Zhargy is a code of laws of the Kazakh khanate during the rule of Tauke khan. Included following basic sections: 1. The ground Law (Zher daui), in which was spoken the decision of disputes on pastures and watering places. 2. The Family-marriage law where the order of the conclusion and divorce, the right and a duty of spouses, property rights of members of a family was established. 3. The military Law regulating departure of a compulsory military service, formation of divisions and elections of military leaders. 4. Position about litigation about a proceeding order. 5. The criminal Law establishing punishments for various kinds of crimes except murder. 6. The law about kun, establishing punishments for murders and heavy physical injuries. 7. The law on widows (Zhesir daui), regulating the property and personal rights of widows and orphans, and also obligations in relation to them of a community. Punishments reflected a blood feud principle: a murder for a murder, a mutilation for a mutilation. The death penalty was applied in the form of hanging and throwing stones for murder of the husband by the wife, murder by the woman of illegally begot child, blasphemy. The payoff punishments-kun was established. So for murder of the simple man the murderer could pay off by giving to its relatives of 1000 rams, for the woman 500, for killing the sultan kun was raised as for 7 simple person. 

1.The political situation during the rule of Tauke khan

Khan Tauke’s code “Zhety Zharghy” (Seven codes of Tauke khan) includes regulation, stipulated for the necessities of military- political and social life of Kazakh society in the 17 century. Under the rule of Tauke khan and after his death in 1718, Kazakh leaders did not take a thought of Russian citizenship at any form at first. They were interested inbeing equal alliances with Russia, especially settling a community against Khuntaydhi (leader of zhonars) Not withstanding the fact that Kazakh khanate expressed its interest in Russian armed support. However, the state ruled by Tauke Khan was able to protect itself without help from outside. Tauke Khan skillfully commanded 80 thousand army in the battle with the Oyrats, and he advanced in rank of a hero of war, batyr.

Tauke khan was an inherent leader: he was distinguished for his wisdom and courage, kindness and fairness. Tauke Khan had a profound respect in his life and great glory in posterity owing to his actions. A well-known legal code of the Kazakh “Zhety zhargy” is connected directly with his name. 

1. The economy and social organization of the Kazakh in XVI – the first half of XVIII centuries.

In XVI-XVIII Kasym, Hakk-Nazar, Esim, Zhangir and Tauke khans corrected. In the beginning of XVI century the code of laws of khan Kasym was known as «the Light way of Kasym khan». It included five basic sections: 1. The Law of property. It included positions about the decision of disputes on the earth, cattle and property. 2. The criminal Law. Here various kinds of criminal offences and punishment for them were considered. 3. The military Law. 4. Ambassadorial custom. In this section was the question of international law, ambassadorial etiquette. 5. The public law. This section has been devoted obligations of communal and mutual aid, and rules of the device of festivals and palace etiquette. The described political system has appeared unstable and kept only cash authority of the Supreme governor. It with bright force was showed during events of XVI century when the sultan tried to proclaim itself the khan. Zheti Zhargy is a code of laws of the Kazakh khanate when there was khan Tauke. It was made with the assistance of famous Tole bi (the Senior djus), Kazybek bi (Average djus) and Ajteke bi (Young djus) in the beginning of XVII century. 

Lecture 6 – 2 hours

The theme

Kazakhstan within the Russian empire.

The plan of the lecture

Incorporation of the Kazakh Steppe into the Russian empire as a loss of the unique nomadic lifestyle of livestock-breeders. The attemps of Russian government to turn the Kazakh into sedentary population. The history of unification of the Small, Middle and Great Hordes with Russia. The epoch of Enlightenment in Kazakhstan (Abai Kunanbaev, Shokan Ualikhanov, Ibrahim Altynsarin).

The brief contents of the lecture

The beginning of the XVIII century was marked with the complicated foreign-political position for the Kazakhs. The political vices became directly aware: Russian state from the north and west, Kalmyks (Zhonghars) from the east and the Central Asian khanates from the south.

In February 19 of 1731 Anna Ioannovna, an empress, signed a letter of grant to Abylkhayir khan about going of the Small Horde under power of Russia. In October 10 in 1731 56 people, together with Abylkhayir khan, signed and swore to Russian throne. They represented the next tribes: 17 –Argyn tribe, 7 – Naiman, 4 – Khypchaks, 4 – Tama tribe, 3 – Zhagalbayly, 1 – Kerdery, 4 – Alasha, 2 – Baibakhty, 2 – Zhappas, 2 – Maskhar, 10 – Tabyn, 1 – Shomekey and 1 – Kete.

The congress of chairmen and sultans – representatives of the Minor and Middle Zhuzes, taken place in Orenburg in 1740, was conductive to strengthen the first results of Russian citizenship. The representatives of the Kazakhs at the congress expressed their thoughts for being naturalized by Russia, taking into consideration the existing situation and aspiring to secure Kazakhstan against the possible invasions of Zhonghars.

Only a part of sultans’ and chairmen’s group of the Small and Middle Hordes took out citizenship of Russia in 1740. And the main regions of the north-east and central Kazakhstan were parts of the empire only in the 20s and 40s of the XIX century, in consequence of military-political actions of the tzarism.

The further consideration of the Russian domination in Kazakhstan was realized by different methods and means: the military-political method – building of supporting centres and Cossack lines, advanced posts, fortifications; the diplomatic method – sending the emperor’s officials to Kazakhstan steppes for regulation of disagreements between the tribe leaders, sultans and frontier administration by means of negotiations; the social-economic method – development of trade. The Kazakh aristocracy took part in guard of the trade caravans; houses were built on the wintering of the aristocracy; they were paid money and bread salaries accompanied by honorable awards and presents. The barter trade took on a political significance.

The foreign-political position of the Middle and Great Hordes experienced difficulties in the middle of the XVIII century. The time of Abylai khan, who was raised to the throne on a white felt in the Mausoleum of Khozha Akhmet Yasaui in Turkestan in 1771, is characterized by his maneuvering between Russia, China and the Central Asian khanates. Abylai khan is kept in the memory of the nation as the symbol of independence and struggle for the sovereignty of Kazakhstan. He abdicated the status of khan given by tsarist government, refused flatly taking an oath in Petropavlovsk and rejected the offered gift of tzarist government even after obtaining commission as the khan by Catherine II. In his lifetime and throughout the nineteenth century Abylai khan inspired the Kazakh people in resisting the transformation of their economy and lifestyle by Russian colonial policy. Descent from Abylai gave authority to a greatson, Kenisary Qasimov (Khan Kene), who led a revolt against the Russians in the 1830s and 1840s. Abylai came to occupy a prominent place in Kazakh oral literature. He represented the aristocratic tradition.

The conquest of Turkestan, Chimkent, Taraz and other cities of the Great Horde in the 1860s completed the process of incorporation of Kazakhstan into Russian territorial system. The Kazakh lands became the new place of Russian settlements. An emigrant policy of the tsarism was carried out in an unprecedented scale.

Compulsory Reading

  1.  Martha Brill Olcott – The Kazakhs, Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, Stanford, California, pp. 55-107;

Additional Reading

1.Kazakhstan. Encyclopedic Reference Book, “Kazakh Encyclopedia”, Almaty, 2007, pp. 77-81;

  1.  История Казахстана с древнейших времен до наших дней, «Деуiр», Алматы, 2006, с. 175-200, 224-257.

The control questions

  1.  The entrance of Kazakhstan into Russian empire: the main stages and their features (the first third of XVIII- the second half of the XIX centuries).
  2.  The agrarian policy of Russia as a main cause of conflicts with the Kazakhs.
  3.  The epoch of Enlightenment in Kazakhstan (Abai Kunanbaev, Shokan Ualikhanov, Ibrahim Altynsarin).

Lecture 7 – 2 hours

The theme

Kazakhstan incorporation to Russian empire. The great uprisings of the XVII-XVIII centuries. The land problem and Russian land policy in Kazakhstan in XIX century.

The plan of the lecture

The uprisings of the XVII-XVIII centuries – by Sirim batyr (Small Horde, 1780s -1790s), Isatai Taiman uli (Inner Horde, 1830s-1840s) and Kenisary Quasimov and Sadyk (Middle Horde, 1840s-1860s). The land problem and Russian land policy in Kazakhstan in XIX century. The series of Russian agrarian economic changes in the steppe under colonial rule.

The brief contents of the lecture

The history of Russo-Kazakh relationships from 1735-1869 was one of continuous popular opposition to Russian rule.The grean uprising of the period –by Sirim batyr (Small Horde, 1780s -1790s), Isatai Taiman uli (Inner Horde, 1830s-1840s) and Kenisary Quasimov and Sadyk (Middle Horde, 1840s-1860s) – were all related. Each rebellion fueled the next, all caused by strong anti-Russian feeling among the Kazakhs, who saw the Russians as the cause of their deteriorating economic situation.

The winter of 1782-1783 brought widespread fighting in the westernmost part of the Middle Horde and on the Inner Side, first between Kazakhs and Cossacks and then among the Kazakh themselves. This was the revolt of Sirim Batyr, who commanded some 6,000 fighters, 2,700 under his direction control. Nur Ali khan was requested by the Russians to put down this revolt, which also threatened his own power, since Sirim rejected both a Russian presence and Nur Ali as their agent. Sirim was supported by Nur Ali’s major rival, Sultan Abu’l Ghazi, son of Qayip, who controlled the lands to the south of Nur Ali. Sirim’s main goal was to obtain more land for the increasingly impoverished Kazakhs who lived along the line of Russian settlement. He advocated only the end of the domination of clanic and tribal authority enjoyed by the white bone, the alleged descendants of Chingis Khan. Division of authority within Kazakh society became an increasingly important issue throughout the colonial period as the Russians tried to enlist the Kazakh aristocracy in the service of their own monarchy. By the autumn of 1784 Nur Ali requested military assistance from the Russians. Two detachments, some 1,500 cossacks, were dispatched from Orenburg. They fought against the rebels throughout the winter of 1784-1785; a temporary stalemate was achieved when Sirim and his supporters fled south, from Russian territory to the area between the Aral Sa and Syr Darya River. A meeting of 20 of the 25 leading Kazakh elders was held in the winter of 1785, at which time they disclaimed Nur Ali as their khan.

Kenisary was born in 1802 in the Kokchetav region. As the self-styled heir of his grandfather, Khan Abylai, Kenisary believed that only he could unite the Kazakh people to withstand twofold threat they faced: absorption by the Russians and defeat at the hands of the Kokand.

Kenisary began his opposition to the Russians in 1837. At the height of his movement he had over 20,000 fighters under his command. Kenisary and his supporters were fighting to restore the power of the Kazakh khanate and to vindicate the memory of Khan Ablai, in whose name they often went to battle.

The family of Qasim had been denied by the Russia government the dignity of khan and supplanted by what they regarded as an unlawful and corrupt form of government that operated contrary to the interest of the Kazakh people. The Russians viewed the existence of a rival authority as intolerable. Finally, in 1844, they dispatched sufficient troops to the Middle Horde territory to defeat Kenisary. Once it became apparent that the Kazakhs couldn’t defeat this superior force, Kenisary and his fighters accepted amnesty from the Russian authorities. Kenisary himself left the Russian-controlled territory of the Middle Horde and joined Jan Khoja Nur Muhammad uli in the latter’s struggle to liberate the Kirgiz from the rule of Kokand. Kenisary died in a battle in Kirgizia in 1847. Following the defeat of Kenisary , the Russian strengthened their military prasance in the territory of the Middle Horde and increased the number of Russian settlements throughout the steppe. These two developments had the desired effect; although resistance to the Russians could emerge, it was forced to be more localized. As a result, the two subsequent challenges to Russian authority – the revolt of Iset Kutebar uli (1853-1857) in the Emba region and that of Jan Khoja Nur Muhammad uli (1856-1858) in the Syr Darya region – were more easily defeated.

Kazakhstan and Russian Empire.

     Kazakh-Russian relations have a long history. In 15 khanates century Russia started the colonization heritage of Golden Horde- Kazan and Astrakhan, South-West of Siberia, Nogai Horde.

Russian tsars were very interested in the  building trade roads with  eastern coutryes  s India and China and of course they understand that  relations with Central Asian states were very important. This interest rise at the period od Piter the  Great.

But first Rusian diplomatic msion was send in 1573. It was mission of Tretyak Chebukov. This mission had aim to meet with Kazakh leaders but had not success because was massacred by Mahmetkul, the nephew of Siberian khan Kuchum.

Some information about Kazakhs brought Boris Domojirob in 1577. He was as diplomat in Nogai Horde. He told  that Kazakh khan Taukel  have only peacefuly goals.

Kazakhs at that period wanted to find ally against  Maverannahr and Djungars. Espeshialy thay wre need a gunpowder and guns.

In 1594 firs Kazakh mission led by Kul-Muhammed  came to Moscow. They had aim to 6take bach Uraz –Muhammed sultan who was  the nephew of Taukel khan and was captured in sibiria by Russian voevoda.

But main aim of that mission was to make agreement with Boris Godunov about guns and Russian military technical support. Boris promised  to send group of specialist but Russian at that period had not strong interest, They had another problems with Nogais, Crimean Tatars, Osman Turks,

The first frotier city was obsk on cosat of river  Ob.

After that a lot of new city or fortress were built Tumen (1586) , Tobolsk (1587), Tara (

(1594), Tomsk (1604)  .Foundation of Djungarian Empire created   a new political balance in Central Asia. Kazakhs neded a strong support against mighty Djungars.

In 1687- Kazakh batir Tashim  traveled to Russia . main aim of his mission was establishing trade relations.In 1717 kazakhs sultans Kaip and Abulhair  asked Russian protectorate. It was horrible time  of Kazakh nation. But Piter the Great  tried to serve policy of neutrality ,

But Russian start to build “military lines”Omsk military line    (1716)

In 1726 sultan of khan  Djuze Abulkhair , starshina Sugur, Edikbai, Hadjibai  sent diplomatic mission to  Sant Peterburg without success .

In 1730 they sent mission again.

And  in 1731  19 Febrary Anne Ionanovna took Kazakh embassy

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