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FACULTY OF PSYCHOLOGY

Hello again! This is Sveta Smirnova and this time I'll tell you about my Institute and my studies.

I am very happy that I study here. It is one of the finest Republic’s higher educational institutions. Many famous people have graduated from my Institute, and not only teachers or scientists, but many outstanding writers, actors, and politicians. Studying at our Institute gives a solid background in all spheres of knowledge and prepares for practical work.

Our Institute is quite large but not very old, compare to other national institutions. It was founded in the middle of the 20th century. It was established in 1962 and ten years later it was named after a famous Mordovian scientist M.E.Evsevyev. It became the largest Institute in the region and it gave birth to various specialities. Nowadays it is a large school where more than 6 000 students are currently enrolled. The majority are full-time students, like me, and the rest are part time-students. There are also a lot of graduate students — aspirants and doctorants. They conduct independent research work and have pedagogical practice.

The course of study at my Institute lasts five years. There are many faculties at my Institute. Here are some of them: the faculty of Physics and Mathematics,  Chemistry and Biology, History and Law, Philology and Foreign languages, the Faculty of Physical Education, Pedagogical Faculty and, of course, the faculty of Psychology, where I currently study.

Our Institute is large and we have several buildings. There are many large halls there so that students of 3-4 groups together can fit in there. And that is more than 100 people. The acoustics in such large halls is very good but sometimes it is very noisy when students chat during the lecture.

Each faculty has its own library, several computer classes, gyms, and other facilities. Many students from my group want to do their own research work in the future and these facilities will certainly help them.

There are several cafes at the University. My favourite one is situated in our building. The food there is tasty and very affordable.

There are also several dormitories or hostel buildings where students from other cities or countries live. But you know already that I don't live in a dormitory -- I live with my parents.

vocabulary

solid background

твердая база, основание

currently

в настоящее время

to be enrolled

числиться в списках студентов

full-time students

студенты дневного отделения

part-time students

студенты заочного отделения

to conduct

проводить

course of study

курс обучения

to chat

беседовать, болтать

facilities

службы, помещения

research work

исследовательская работа

tasty

вкусный

affordable

доступный

afford

позволять

noisy

шумный

Exercise 1.

Describe the following. Be as specific as possible:

a)  your secondary school (college);

b) the faculty of your university;

c) your favourite teacher at school.

Exercise 2.

Do you know?

1) When was your Institute established?

2) Who was its first rector?

3) Were there any famous a) scientists, engineers b) politicians c) artists among the graduates?

4) How many people are currently enrolled?

5) What is the most popular faculty in your Institute?

Exercise 3

Do you agree or disagree with the following statements:

a) Larger schools are better than smaller ones.

b) It is impossible to enter the university if you haven’t attended preparatory courses.

c) The best professors are the oldest ones.

d) It is more fun to live in a dormitory or student hostel than to rent an apartment.

e) Professors always know more than students and  teaching instructors.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UK

Education after 16 is voluntary in United Kingdom. Students, who live in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, must take at the age of 16 the examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In Scotland students receive the Scottish Certificate of Education. After this exam students can choose to stay in school or attend colleges of further education.

British universities are self-governing and are guaranteed academic independence. Funding for education and research is provided by funding councils set up by Parliament. The number of universities jumped in 1992 when polytechnics and some other higher education establishments were given the right to become universities. By the end of 1994, there were some 90 universities, almost half of them former polytechnics, including the Open University.

Many of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge universities were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries. All other universities in Britain were founded in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Open University, based in Milton Keynes, England, was founded in 1969. It uses extension techniques of correspondence courses, television and radio programmes, and video cassettes, supported by local study centres and residential summer schools, to provide higher education opportunities to a wide variety of people.

During the 1960s there was a significant increase in the number of new universities, reflecting a fast growth in student numbers which was made possible by an expansion in grant facilities. During the 1980s, an expansion in higher education places led to another large jump in student numbers. In the 1992-1993 academic year there were more than 1.4 million students in full— or part-time higher education in Great Britain, compared with just under 850,000 a decade earlier. About one quarter of young people are in higher education in England, Wales, and Scotland; one third in Northern Ireland. About 90 per cent of students get state grants to cover tuition fees and living costs.

The size of the grant is determined by parents’ income. Since the late 1980s, however, grants have been frozen; students can apply for a student loan.

vocabulary

voluntary

добровольное

attend

посещать

self-governing

самоуправление

polytechnics

политехнические институты

extension techniques

технологии дистанционного образования

to reflect

отражать

Parents’ income

доход родителей

student loan  

студенческий заём

funding

финансирование

significant

значительный

funding councils

советы по финансированию

to set up

основывать

  

add to your active vocabulary:

a) high-school dipoma школьный аттестат

graduation ceremony –выпускной экзамен

Bachelor of Science (B.S.) – бакалавр естественных наук

Bachelor of Art (B.A.) – бакалавр естественных наук

Master of Arts (M.A.) — магистр искусств

Master of Science (M.S.) —магистр естественных наук

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) – доктор философии

undergraduate student — студент 1-4(5) курсов

graduate student – студент 5-6 курсов

 graduate school of psychology – магистратура аспирантура по специальности работотехника

b) room (lodging) and board –проживание и пропитание

personal expenses —личные расходы

books and supplies — книги и материалы

c) to be eligible for admission- быть подходящей кандидатурой для поступления

to enrol —зачислять

enrollment — зачисление

tuition fee —плата за обучение

admissions office- приемная комиссия

student services office — департамент по работе со студентами

university bursar's office - бухгалтерия университета (офис казначея)

Exercise 8.1

Translate into English:

1.В возрасте 16 лет каждый житель Великобритании обязан сдать экзамены на получение Сертификата о среднем образовании.

2.Экзамены продвинутого уровня являются необходимым требованием для поступления в университет.

3. Британские университеты являются полностью самоуправляемыми.

4.В 1992 году политехническим институтам была предоставлено право стать университетами.

5.Открытый университет, широко известный своими технологиями дистанционного обучения, был основан в 1969 году.

6.В 60-е годы в Соединенном королевстве наметился значительный рост числа университетов.

7.Размер гранта на обучение определяется исходя из дохода родителей.

Questions for discussion:

1) Do you think that higher education should be free? Do you think that the quality of education in private universities and institutes is better because professors and teachers are paid more?

2) Do you think that the paid higher education with a system of grants is better than entry exams?

MY PLANS FOR FUTURE

       Hi, there! Here is Sveta again. I am afraid this will be my last meeting with you because I need to get ready for my trip. I am leaving for Sochi tonight. Not only to enjoy our warm southern sun and to swim, in blue waters of the Black Sea, but to see my friends. Besides, I have nothing to do here anymore: I have passed all the exams successfully and I'm free till the 1st of September.

        As you might have already understood this unit is devoted to my plans for future! It would be honest to say that I don't have any yet. But still, of course, I often think about my future and my goals in life.

        One of the things I would like to do in the future is to do a research in medical psychology. After I finish my Institute I want to apply for a graduate school in Moscow. Education is better there and there are more opportunities for work. I also might want to study abroad. But it is not as easy as it sounds. You have to know English well enough to pass the test of English. Then, you should always remember that education is not free in most of the countries. And it may be very expensive! Up to tens of thousands dollars a year. So, you need to find a source of finance to pay the tuition fee. And, besides, you always need some money to support yourself.

But I want you to know that I don't want to leave the country forever. I strongly believe that economy in our country will be better soon and leaving it will not make you happy. As a psychologist I understand that there are more things in life than just being not hungry and have nice clothes. But traveling and living abroad broadens your horizons and gives you food for thought.

To my mind my future profession is very important nowadays. It implies great responsibility and a lot of activities of different kind. I think being a good psychologist means to serve a model of behavior and not just give knowledge of something. I am sure our task is not only to provide pupils with information but also to prepare them for everyday life, to make them good and responsible citizens of the society.

I am a very practical person. So I think about the employment opportunities in my field. It is still difficult to find well paid job in psychology. Most of people still don't realize the importance of psychology and hire them just because of a fashion.

But you can always start your own business and have your private practice. You only need a license and a working experience. Private psychologists and psychoanalysists are very popular and well-paid abroad!

And, like I wrote in one of the first units, I want to help people with their problems.

In conclusion, I would like to say that Institute gives very good background knowledge of subject. But this knowledge is too general. Most graduates are only theoretically prepared for work. We don't have many practical course and those we have are very weak. The only opportunity t work somewhere is during the summer vacation. But of course one wants to rest a little after a whole year of studies and hard exam session. That is what is called a dilemma.

See you in September!

vocabulary

besides

кроме того

to do a research

проводить исследование

successfully

успешно

to apply

подавать заявление

to devote

посвящать

graduate school

аспирантура

to sound

звучать

source of finance

источник финансирования

tuition fee

плата за обучение

to broaden

расширять

horizon

горизонт

food for thought

пища для ума

employment opportunities

возможности для работы

to realize

отдавать отчет, понимать

to hire

нанимать

fashion

мода

private practice

частная практика

well-paid

хорошо оплачиваемый

general

общий

dilemma

дилемма

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY

prestigious job (work) -  престижная работа                                    

experienced worker – опытный работник

well-paid job высокооплачиваемая работа                                      

to be hired for a job – быть нанятым

employee – наемный рабочий

employer - наймодатель                                    

to look for a new job(work, position) – искать новую работу

entrepreneur, businessman - предприниматель

state-employed – государственный служащий

to apply for a new job – претендовать на какую-то должность

white-collar worker – «белый воротничок», работник умственного труда

application for a position of – заявление на какую-либо должность

blue-collar worker - «синий воротничок», работник физического труда

resume - резюме

C.V. (curriculum vitae) – резюме автобиография

Skilled worker – квалифицированный работник

to be fired – быть уволенным

unskilled worker – неквалифицированный рабочий

 to retire – уходить на пенсию

to be unemployed быть безработным

The United Kingdom (the UK)

The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It was formed by the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, but Southern Ireland broke away in 1921. The official name of the country is often abbreviated  to the   United Kingdom,   Great Britain,  Britain, England or the UK.

Its area is 244,046 square kilometers (94,201 square miles). The capital of the UK is London. The country is located in the north west of Europe. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel and the North Sea. The main rivers of the UK are the Thames, the Tees, the Tweed, the Trent. The geographical position has made the United Kingdom a commercial and maritime power,

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and it is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Wales became an English principality in 1284, Scotland and England were officially joined as Great Britain in 1707. Each of the four parts of the UK consists of counties.

  1.  Answer the following questions:

What is the official name of the country?

What other names are used for the name of the country?

How large is the UK?

What is the capital of the UK? What can you say about this city?

What are the main rivers in the country?

What can you say about its administrative and political system?

Unit 4                    Industry and agriculture of the UK

In the past English industrial prosperity rested on a few important products, such as textiles, coal and heavy machinery. Now the UK has a great variety of industries, for example: heavy and light industry, chemical, aircraft, electrical, automobile and many other industries. The United Kingdom is considered one of the world's major manufacturing nations. Now high technology industries are more developed than heavy engineering. Heavy engineering and other traditional industries have experienced a certain decline.

Certain areas are traditionally noted for various types of industries. For instance, Newcastle is famous for coal industry, the county of Lancashire for its textile industry. The Midlands, or the central counties of England, are famous for the production of machinery, coal, motor cars and chemicals. In recent times regional industrial distinctions have become less clear as more and more new factories are built in the different parts of the country.

Speaking about the cities of the United Kingdom the first mention should be made of London, the capital of the UK. It is a big port on the River Thames, a major commercial, industrial centre.

Leeds is a centre of clothing industry producing woolen articles. Glasgow is a major port on the River Clyde where shipbuilding industry is developed. Liverpool on the River Mersey is a flour milling and engineering centre. Birmingham is an iron and steel centre. Manchester is famous for textiles manufacturing.

Three-quarters of the United Kingdom's land is dedicated to agriculture. About two per cent of the population of the United Kingdom is engaged in agriculture, but the yields of English farms and pastures are very high. Wheat, barley, oats and potatoes are the most important crops grown. Sheep, cattle and pigs are the most numerous types of livestock. Sheep is a source of both wool for textile industry and mutton for food industry. Mutton is the best liked English meat.

  1.  Answer the following questions:
    1.  What industries were developed in Great Britain some years ago?
      1.  The United Kingdom is considered one of the world's major manufacturing nations, isn’t it?
        1.  What is developing now?
        2.  What are certain areas noted for and why?
        3.  What is London (Liverpool, Glasgow, Birmingham) famous for?
        4.  How many people are engaged into agriculture?
  2.  Give a short summary of the text.

Unit 4                                 THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometers. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.

The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is more than 270 million.

If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.

America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.

The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.

Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and Native Americans.

The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington and others.

The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic, though there's hardly any difference between their political lines.

Vocabulary Bank

to occupy

занимать

to stretch

простираться

to include

включать в себя

total area

общая площадь

to have a border

иметь границу

to border

граничить

to be made up of

состоять из

to be located

располагаться

to be situated

быть расположенным

to blow

дуть

government

правительство

branches of power

отрасли власти

the executive power

исполнительная власть

the legislative power

законодательная власть

the judicial power

судебная власть

to consist of

состоять из

EXERCISES:

1. Write down the Russian equivalents:

The United States of America; the southern part; the total area; it borders on Canada; made up of; a special federal area; the population; lowlands and mountains; bring typhoons; a federal union; the executive power; the legislative power; the judicial power.

2. Form comparative and superlative degrees of these adjectives:

Deep, developed, heavy, famous, recent, sweet, old, short, important, natural, cold, long, large, difficult, good, bad, late.

3. Answer the following questions:

What are the shorter names for the United States of America?

What two countries does it border on?

What is the total area of the country?

How many states does it consist of?

What can you say about the surface and the climate of the USA?

What are the longest rivers in America?

What is the capital of the country?

What states are familiar to you?

Who is the head of the executive power of the country?

What are the main political parties in the country?

  1.  Insert the correct preposition:

The United States … America;

It consists … 50 states;

The District … Columbia is governed … Congress;

It is located … the north … the States;

The USA borders … Mexico.

  1.  Using some additional information complete the table and write down the names of the states and their capitals:

state

capital

capital

state

New York

Boston

Alaska

Helena

California

Albany

Hawaii

Bismarck

Texas

Columbus

Washington

Salem

  1.  Sum up what the text says about:

The geographic position of the USA; the administrative structure of the USA

                                    ECONOMY OF THE USA.

The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized country. Shipbuilding, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry, space research are highly developed in the States.

Each region of the United States has characteristics of its own due to the differences in climate, landscape and geographical position.

Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersy are the biggest industrial regions of the country.

The United States has a lot of mineral deposits or resources such as coal, gold, silver, copper, lead and zink. The south, especially Texas is rich in oil. The coalfields of Pennsylvania are rich in coal. There are plenty of coal mines.

Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska is the richest farming region of America and it is known as the Corn Belt. The land is fertile and well watered. They grow most corn and wheat there. Many livestock are also raised here.

There is a lot fruit raising area. For example, California oranges, grapefruit, lemons, as well as other fruits, wines and vegetables are shipped all over the States and to other parts of the world. The most important crops grown in the States are also tobacco, soy-beans, peanuts, grapes and many others.

There are a lot of large and modern cities, but a great proportion of the country consists of open land dotted with farm-houses and small towns. The usual average town, in any part of the United States, has its Main Street with the same types of stores selling the same products. Many American residential areas tend to have a similar look. As to big cities their centres or downtowns look very much alike. Downtown is the cluster of skyscrapers imitations of New York giants.

New York City is the first biggest city of the States. Its population is more than twelve million people, suburbs included. It is a financial and advertising business centre. It is also a biggest seaport of the Hudson River. Industry of consumer goods is also developed here.

Chicago with a population of more than three and a half million is the second largest city in the USA. It deals in wheat and other grains, cattle meat processing and manufacturing.

The big cities are New Orleans, a cotton industry centre, Los Angeles with Hollywood, Philadelphia, a shipping commercial centre, Detroit, a world's leading motor car producer and many others.

 

Vocabulary Bank.

space

космос, пространство

research

исследование

space research

космическое исследование

due to

вследствие, из-за

climate

климат

landscape

ландшафт

coast

берег

Atlantic coast

Атлантическое побережье

mineral deposits/ resources

запасы полезных ископаемых

gold

золото

silver

серебро

copper

медь

lead

свинец

zink

цинк

rich

богатый

to be rich in smth

быть богатым чем-либо

plenty of

много

mine

шахта, рудник

to mine

добывать руду

mining (industry)

добывающая промышленность

corn

кукуруза

pop-corn

поп-корн

belt

пояс

The Corn Belt

Кукурузный пояс

fertile

плодородный, изобильный

fertility

плодородие, изобилие

to water

снабжать влагой, поливать, орошать

water

вода

well watered

хорошо орошаемый

to raise

выращивать

to raise livestock

выращивать домашний скот

vegetable

овощ, растительный

to ship

отправлять, отгружать

to dot

усеивать

to be dotted with smth

быть усеянным чем-либо

average

среднее число, средний

store

магазин

to tend

иметь тенденцию

to look like

выглядеть одинаково

downtown

деловая часть города

cluster

скопление, концентрация

skyscraper

небоскреб

giant

гигант

suburb

пригород

to include

включать

to advertise

рекламировать

advertisement (ad)

реклама

consumer goods

потребительские товары

to deal in smth

иметь дело с чем-либо

to deal with smb

иметь дело с кем-либо

to refine

очищать, повышать качество

oil refining centre

refinery

нефтеперерабатывающий центр

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)

Национальное управление по аэронавтике и исследованиям космического пространства

cotton

хлопок, хлопчатобумажный

Exercises:

1. Explain the usage of the articles and translate the sentences into Russian:

1. The US has a lot of mineral deposits.

The south is rich in oil.

Illinois is one of the richest farming regions of America.

There is a lot of fruit raising area.

California is one of the biggest grapes raising areas.

The most important crops grown in the States are tobacco, soybeans, grapes.

2. Use the nouns in the right form (singular or plural):

1. The population of New York City is more than eight million (people).

2. Chicago with a (population) of more than three and a half million is the second largest (city) in the US.

Chicago deals in wheat and other (grain).

Other big (city) are Huston, New Orleans and Los Angeles.

Huston is an oil refining and NASA space research (centre).

By the way, (Englishman) spell the name of the city as Houston.

Its (population) is about 1.213.000 (people).

3. Form the words as in the example:

to process meat – meat processing

to process milk

to produce cars

to refine oil

to raise livestock

to grow grains

to build ships

to build machines

to build bridges

4. Translate into Russian paying attention to the words in italics:

A highly developed industrialized country

Fruit raising area

An advertising business centre

The second largest city

Cattle meat processing

A cotton industry centre

A shipping commercial centre

A world leading motor car producer

NASA space research centre

A flour milling centre

5. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Благодаря различиям в климате, природе и географическом положении каждый регион США имеет свои специфические черты.

Земли здесь плодородны и хорошо орошаемы.

Выращивают в основном кукурузу и пшеницу.

Также разводят много скота.

Большие площади заняты фруктовыми садами.

Фрукты и овощи Калифорнии вывозят в другие штаты и страны.

Значительная часть территории – это равнина с большим количеством ферм и маленьких городов.

6. Match the cities and their main characteristics, and make sentences of your own:

New York

The first biggest city of the States

New Orleans

The second largest city

Detroit

An oil refining and space research centre

Huston

A cotton industry centre

Chicago

Hollywood

Los Angeles

A shipping commercial centre

Philadelphia

The world’s leader in car producing

7.  Sum up what the text says about:

The look of a modern big city and its downtown

The look of a town and its Main Street

Mineral resources f the country

The Corn Belt

The state of California

1                                           

ABOUT MYSELF.

 

My name is Sveta Smirnova. I am 19 years old. I am a first-year student of the Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute. I was born in Saransk, so it is my native town.

First of all I want to tell you a few words about my family. I have a mother, a father, an elder sister and a grandmother.

My mother is a doctor. Her hospital is not far from our house. It's good that it doesn't take her long to get to her work. She is a good-looking woman of about 40.

My father is a financier. He is very busy. He is a nice man. My father is lively with humour. My parents have been married for twenty-two years. They have much in common. My parents are hard-working people. My mother keeps house and takes care of my father and me. She is very clever with her hands. She is very practical. My father and I try to help her with the housework. As for me I wash the dishes, go shopping and tidy our flat.

My grandmother is a pensioner. She lives with us and helps us to run the house. My grandmother is fond of knitting.

My sister Helen is married and has a family of her own. She works as a book-keeper for a joint venture company.

Now a few words about myself. I am rather sociable and easy to deal with. I have a lot of friends with whom we discuss many things. I am very emotional, it's impossible for me to be always calm. I envy people who are patient and never lose their temper.

I love animals very much. My cat Basil often lies on my knees when I am at home. I would like to have a dog too, but my parents are against it. I can't say that I have any hobby, but I am fond of listening to classical music, though most of my friends prefer pop-music or rock-n-roll. My dream is to be a good financier. I think that I take after my father. I hope that my dream will come true.

Schools in the United Kingdom

Education in the United Kingdom is compulsory from the age of five to sixteen. Children under five go either to nursery schools, or to playgroups. Both types of pre-primary educational establishments are non-state; the difference is that a child spends the whole day in a nursery school, while he or she can stay in a playgroup only for some hours a day. Anyway, the main aim of such kind of establishments is to make the children ready for primary schools. Children play, draw, modelling from clay and learn to work together.

Compulsory education for all children begins at the age of five. There are 35,000 state schools in Britain. All of them are the responsibility of the Local Educational Authorities (LEA). The LEA caters for l he curriculum and exams in each region; they also appoint head teachers and held assessment tests at schools.

Primary school is for children from five to eleven. At first the studies are more like playing than working; English teachers say that this is the host way for children to get used to school. Probably they are right: children learn better when they play. Lessons usually last from nine in the morning till four or five in the afternoon with a long break at the lunchtime.

At the age of eleven pupils go to comprehensive schools. Children usually wear a uniform; it is different in different schools. They study Maths, English, Arts, English Literature, Geography, one or two foreign languages, usually French, Italian or German, PE (Physical Education), IT (Information Technology), Religion, Science, Biology, Sex Education and other subjects.

At the end of their studies they take General Certificate of Secondary Education examinations (GCSE) 0-level, and then they either leave school and start working or continue their studies at school or at college for two more years. This is called the sixth form at school or the sixth form college, and the students take only the subjects they need for entering the university of their choice.

At the age of eighteen they take GCSE A-level. They usually take three or four A-levels. There are no entrance exams to universities, so the students can enter a university or a college on the results of their A-level examinations.

Speaking about education in the UK it is necessary to say that there  is a great difference between state education and private education. State schools are free, and about ninety per cent of all children attend them. Private or public schools are very expensive. These are usually boarding schools, where children stay while they study, coming home only on vacations. These schools are for children between thirteen and eighteen. Before entering a public school children are usually educated at home. State schools are usually mixed, while private schools are typically single-sex, with a few exceptions.

Pre-primary and Primary Education

Nurseries

Primary School

Streaming

The Eleven-Plus Examination — No More of it?

In some areas of England there are nursery schools3 for children under 5 years of age. Some children between two and five receive education in nursery classes or in infants’ classes in primary schools. Many children attend informal preschool play-groups organized by parents in private homes. Nursery schools are staffed with teachers and students in training. There are all kinds of toys to keep the children busy from 9 o'clock in the morning till 4 o'clock in the afternoon—while their parents are at work. Here the babies play, lunch and sleep. They can run about and play in safety with someone keeping an eye on them.

For day nurseries which remain open all the year round the parents pay according to their income. The local education authority's nurseries are free. But only about three children in 100 can go to them: there aren't enough places, and the waiting lists are rather long.

Most children start school at 5 in a primary school. A primary school may be divided into two parts—infants and juniors. At infants school reading, writing and arithmetic are taught for about 20 minutes a day during the first year, gradually increasing to about 2 hours in their last year. There is usually no written timetable. Much time is spent in modelling from clay or drawing, reading or singing.

By the time children are ready for the junior school they will be able to read and write, do simple addition and subtraction of numbers.

At 7 children go on from the infants school to the junior school. This marks the transition from play to 'real work'. The children have set periods of arithmetic, reading and composition which are all Eleven-Plus subjects. History, Geography, Nature Study, Art and Music, Physical Education, Swimming are also on the timetable.

Pupils are streamed, according to their ability to learn, into А, В, С and D streams. The least gifted are in the D stream. Formerly towards the end of their fourth year the pupils wrote their Eleven-Plus Examination. The hated 11 + examination was a selective procedure on which not only the pupils' future schooling but their future careers depended. The abolition of selection at Eleven-Pius Examination brought to life comprehensive schools where pupils can get secondary education.

References

1.   primary school — общая начальная школа (для детей от 5 до И лет в Англии и от 5 до 12 лет в Шотландии; государственная; включает первую ступень малышей и начальную школу)

2. Eleven-Plus Examination — отборочные экзамены в 11 с половиной лет (включают интеллектуальные тесты на проверку умственных способностей учащегося, его сообразительности, знания английского языка и арифметики; по результатам экзаменов определяют, в каком типе школы учащемуся продолжить образование: в классической, технической или средней современной школе; в большинстве школ эти экзамены были отменены с введением единой средней школы)

3.   nursery school — дошкольное учреждение; старшая группа детского сада

4.   infants ['infants] classes — классы первой ступени начальной школы (от 5 до 7 лет)

5.   local education authority's nursery — дошкольное учреждение, находящееся в ведении местных органов образования

6.   junior school — начальная школа (для детей от 7 до 11 лет; государственная; существует самостоятельно или в составе общей начальной школы)

7.   set periods— фиксированные в расписании уроки

8.   to stream распределять по потокам (в зависимости от результатов интеллектуальных тестов: streaming — распределение по «потокам»; сравните: grouping — распределение  по  профилям,   уровням,  setting  —   распределение  по группам   для  изучения  предметов   на  разных  уровнях   и  в зависимости от успехов)

9. comprehensive [,kompn'hensiv] school — единая средняя школа (соединяющая три типа школ: классическую, среднюю современную и техническую)

Secondary Education

 Comprehensive Schools

 Grammar Schools        

 Secondary Modern Schools

 •The Sixth Form

 No More Inequality?

 Cuts on School Spending

After the age of 11, most children go to comprehensive schools of which the majority are for both boys and girls.

About 90 per cent of all state-financed secondary schools are of this type. Most other children receive secondary education in grammar and secondary modern schools.

Comprehensive schools were introduced in 1965. The idea of comprehensive education, supported by the Labour Party, was to give all children of whatever background the same opportunity in education.

At 16 students in England and Wales take GCSE examinations. In 1988 these examinations replaced the GCE and O-levels which were usually passed by about 20 per cent of school students. GCSE examinations are taken by students of all levels of ability in any of a range of subjects, and may involve a final examination, and assessment of work done by the student during the two-year course, or both of these things.

Some comprehensive schools, however, do not have enough academic courses for sixth-formers. Students can transfer either to a grammar school or to a sixth-form college to get the courses they want.

At 18 some students take A-level examinations, usually in two or three subjects. It is necessary to have A-levels in order to go to a university or Polytechnic.

But some pupils want to stay on at school after taking their GCSE, to prepare for a vocational course or for work rather than for A-level examinations. Then they have to take the CPVE examination which means the Certificate of Pre-Vocational Education.

In Scotland students take the SCE examinations. A year later, they can take examinations called Highers after which they can go straight to a university.

Secondary education in Northern Ireland is organized along selective lines according to children's abilities.

One can hardly say that high quality secondary education is provided for all in Britain. There is a high loss of pupils from working-class families at entry into the sixth form. If you are a working-class child at school today, the chance of your reaching the second year of a sixth-form course is probably less than one-twelfth of that for the child of a professional parent. Besides, government cuts on school spending caused many difficulties.

References

1.   grammar school — классическая школа (государственная или частная; предусматривается изучение классических языков)

2.   secondary modern school — средняя современная школа (государственная; имеет практическую направленность)

3.   secondary education — среднее образование (для учащихся от 11 до 16 или 18 лет)

4.   GCSE сокр. от the General Certificate of Secondary Education — общий аттестат о среднем образовании (введен в практику в 1988 г.; предполагает не только сдачу учащимися соответствующих экзаменов, но и оценку их текущей учебы за два года)

5.   GCE сокр. от the General Certificate of Education – Общий аттестат о школьном образовании (экзамены на получение такого аттестата существовали до 1988 года)

6.O-level сокр. от Ordinary level – 1) на обычном, пониженном уровне 2) экзамены на Общий аттестат о школьном образовании, существовавшие до 1988 года.

7. sixth-form college – приготовительный колледж (среднее учебное заведение для молодежи старше 16 лет; государственное или частное)

8. A-levelсокр. от Advanced level 1) повышенный уровень; 2) экзамен на повышенном уровне по программе средней школы

9. SCE  сокр. от the Scottish Certificate of Education – аттестат о среднем образовании на территории Шотландии

10.Highers – экзамены на повышенном уровне на получение аттестата о среднем образовании в Шотландии

11. professional – человек умственного труда (адвокат, врач, архитектор, преподаватель и др.)

Education in Russia

Children start school at the age of six in Russia. The course of studies at school is eleven years now: four years of primary school and seven years of secondary school. Previously it was only ten years: three years of primary school and seven years of secondary school. Children under the age of six are taken to creches and nursery schools.

There is a wide choice of schools nowadays: state schools, private schools, lyceums and gymnasiums. The majority of schools is free of charge, but in some (usually private ones) parents have to pay for the education of their children. In ordinary schools parents sometimes pay for additional subjects in the curriculum, such as a foreign language or arts. Though it is generally not a demand, most children can already read and write when they start their school: this makes education much easier for them.

In primary school there are three or four lessons a day, they usually ire Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. A lesson lasts forty minutes. During the first term children get used to learning and adapt to school i regulations. Beginning with the second term of the first year at school, children also take Handicrafts, Drawing, Music and Physical Education. The list of subjects under study is further extended during the second, third and fourth years and includes the World History of Arts, fundamentals of Security, History, Geography, and others. At primary schools all lessons are usually conducted by one teacher.

At the age of ten children pass to the second stage of education, known as secondary school. In secondary school there is a wide variety of subjects under study, and teachers specialize. The transition from primary to secondary school is sometimes difficult for children. After finishing the ninth form and getting the Certificate of Basic Secondary Education, schoolchildren may either continue their education in the tenth form, or leave school and go to technical (vocational) schools and colleges.

After eleven years at school the school leavers take examinations and get the Certificate of Complete Secondary Education. Those who have only excellent marks in the Certificate get a gold medal, which gives the right to enter higher school taking only one examination.

The admission to higher school is competitive and based on the system of entrance examinations, usually three or four. During the examinations the school leavers must show their abilities in the chosen field. Young people also have an option to get specialized secondary education in vocational schools after leaving the eleventh form.

Among higher educational establishments are institutes (colleges), academies and universities. The term of studying in higher school is from four to six years. Students can be involved in scientific research while studying. At the end of their final year at college, university or academy they take final examinations and get a diploma. Besides they can take postgraduate courses in the chosen field.




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